How did Cardinal Mazarin die of consumption
Toussaint Rose was born in Provins in the first days of September 1615, the son of Étienne Rose, and was baptized on September 5, 1615. The baptism certificate was at least still in the Provins city archives in 1891. He attended a Catholic seminary in Provins, the “école des prêtres séculiers”. Prêtre séculier are all priests who do not live in monastic orders. However, he did not become a priest but went to Paris and obtained a law degree in secular and canon law at the Sorbonne in Paris. He then returned to Provins to work as a lawyer, but was unsuccessful. So he went back to Paris and was sworn in as a lawyer at the Parlement in Paris on November 26, 1636. He entered the service of Cardinal Armand-Jean du Plessis, duc de Richelieu (1585-1642), who paid no further attention to him, which is why Rose gave up the post again in 1638 and joined the entourage of Jean-François Paul de Gondi (1613-1679) joined the later cardinal of the Pays de Retz. Rose went to Italy with Gondi.
Portrait of Toussaint Roses by François de Troy (1645-1730), public domain since the painter died over 100 years ago, found at http://www.reproarte.com/
Upon his return from Italy, Rose entered the service of Jules Mazarin (1602-1661). This post gave him more security, he married Madeleine de Villiers on September 8, 1641 († June 27, 1701) and on August 31, 1642, Louis Rose, his only child, was born. When Cardinal Richelieu died on December 4, 1642, Mazarin was replaced by “Principal Ministre de l’État”, which roughly corresponds to the post of Prime Minister.
In December 1645, Rose was Mazarin's secretary. Due to Mazarin's influence, Rose was accepted into the “Conseil du roi de France” (advisory group to the king) on October 30, 1649 by Anna of Austria (1601–1666), the mother of Louis XIV (1638–1715), who during his youth held the reign. The Conseil du roi de France was the forerunner of today's Council of Ministers.
From 1648 to 1653 the time of THE Fronde was in France. Even in today's France, Fronde still refers to a time when there were many expressions of opinion directed against the government, but that was when the first Fronde took place. The Fronde was directed against Mazarin and Mazarin even had to go into exile from 1651 to 1653. During all this time, Rose stood by Mazarin and negotiated with the parties, traveling back and forth between Mazarin, Gondi and the Prince of Condé, Louis II. De Bourbon (1621-1686). After the Fronde, Mazarin was back in office. In 1654 Rose got a post as "Minister of Forestry" to the Duke of Orléans, the king's brother. The management and marketing of forests and waters was a right of the nobility in the Ancien Régime (time before the French Revolution).
In 1655, Toussaint Rose and his father, who had meanwhile become mayor of Provins, were raised to the nobility. The father chose a blue coat of arms with a gold ^ on which were depicted three roses, two above the ends of the ^ and one below, at the top of the coat of arms. The coat of arms was held by two greyhounds and the motto was: “Nunquam marcessent” (never wither). Shortly afterwards, Toussaint Rose bought the Coye fief (today Coye-la-Forêt) in the Chantilly forest and called himself “Marquis de Coye”.
The coat of arms looked something like this, I painted it with a very simple program and I apologize for the quality. Brass players, please don't hit me for this. License: public domain
Secretary to the King
On April 25, 1657 Rose became Chamber Secretary to the King and in 1661 he became President of the Court of Auditors in Paris. In 1667 he achieved that the members of the Académie française were socially of the same rank as the members of the parliament, which meant that the members of the academy were invited by the king to events and were allowed to give speeches. For this, Rose was accepted into the Académie française in 1675.
Rose was active well into old age. One evening at the beginning of 1701, when he returned from Marly-le-Roi Palace, the summer residence of Louis XIV, he lay down, was sick for a few days and died on the morning of January 6, 1701.
Many of the king's letters are actually from Rose, but they are not literary works. Rose had a handwriting similar to that of the king and was often commissioned to write letters of condolence, congratulations, and the like in the king's name.
Marc de Villiers du Terrage: “Un secrétaire de Louis XIV: Toussaint Rose, marquis de Coye, president de la Chambre des comptes”. May et Motteroz, 1891. in archive.org (French)
Toussaint Rose in the German language Wikipedia in the version of November 18, 2009). I just messed up the article, most of which I wrote myself. But without the IP from Bayreuth (?) I would never have thought of reading the book about Rose.
If somebody complains anyway, you know how Gnu FDL and Wikipedia are like that…. As a precaution, I license the article with the GNU Free Documentation License.
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