How to avoid implicitly captured lock meanings
Dr. Gerd Tesch, Simmern, in August 2015
The Pedagogical Conference (PK) can be a special one for teachers Articulation, coordination, cooperation and integration space be in their school. All members of this learning institution can therefore rely on valuable innovation impulses from the Pks.
In the classroom, teachers use more or less conscious strategies to reduce the complexity of the interactions. Conversely, a demanding, knowledge-enhancing increase in complexity takes place in the PK, which is relieved of the burden of action: By reflecting and aggregating perspectives, the teachers in the PK can develop a common goal- and value-oriented control ability with regard to class teaching. The sociological view of the social system of teaching proves to be helpful. Its social order can thus be sustainably stabilized.
Gerd Tesch: The pedagogical conference (PK) of the lower secondary level of the grammar school as a social system
- The structure of the PK
- The conference management of the PK
- The institutionalization of the PC as a process
- Teaching as a conference subject of the PC
- The PK as an in-school cooperation body sui generis
- The PC as a source of information for various actors
- Problems of opening up the PC
- The PK as an internal evaluation tool
School is more than the sum of the lessons given. School life thrives when teachers and students also meet in non-classroom communication rooms, in other roles and role assignments, e.g. as members in the school choir, in the school theater, in a school sports group. In schools, countless actions and interactions take place every day, beyond structural-organizational, and above all administrative regulations. These have partly intentional, partly behind the back of the actors upbringing and educational effects. In this respect, teachers and other school actors often do pedagogical (valuable) relationship and educational work per se, without them always being aware of this. In any case, teachers would not interpret or even stylize this activity as work in the sense of the word because of their professional ethics. Unfortunately, the success of such, often casual, relationship work, which also has a positive effect on the classroom, is not sufficiently public (appreciated). To appreciate them incidentally is intent-free, nonetheless narrative and meaningful accompaniment to later interviews with alumni i. S. of "Do you know yet ...", of anecdotally reported, collectively shared memories.
According to the common and sobering experience, conferences and business meetings can sometimes not be ascribed an efficiency and effectiveness potential corresponding to the time, work and commitment required. With regard to reliability, continuity, binding force and legitimation, however, informal coordination services must be accompanied by formal ones. Institutionally, these have good chances of realization if they come about within the system and in a self-determined manner and are supported by a broad consensus.
- The structure of the PC in secondary schools
In contrast to the general conference, service meeting, certificate and specialist conferences as well as various school committee meetings the PKa school lawbarely somewhere explicit standardized subsystem the institution school - possibly a legitimacy and consequently also Certificate of effectiveness: Process stability and effective patterns of order emerge above all in a substantial and sustainable manner, if you Not "From above" or "from outside" prescribed but arise in the system itself.
The PK takes place in year-based school types every six months, specifically for grades 5-10. As a rule, the PC consists of the subject teachers of the class, the graduate and the headmaster (or deputy); she will moderated by the level - in coordination with the class leader.
The manageable number of participants (plus / minus 10) proves to be advantageous insofar as options for action can arise from the ideas and suggestions articulated in the PC. Experience shows that in general conferences many teachers cannot find a forum for articulation out of shyness, bias or other reasons, whereas they really flourish in specialist conferences and PKs. In these communication rooms, which are limited in terms of the number of participants, group-related and social and not, as so often, primarily subject-oriented experiences can be exchanged, examined, assessed and evaluated.
- The conference management of the PK
The graduate must ensure, after and in coordination with the class leader, that the class as a social group in the reflection and dialogue center of the PK stands. The precondition for the success of the work in the PK is that no deficit search strategy is pursued that would damage trust. Accordingly, particularly careful communicative, educational, but also organizational design skills are required from both management functions. According to all experience, this professionalization develops with increasing management experience.
The conference management must ensure that the accentuated role of the class leader is preserved, but that the (often manipulative) dominance of opinion of individual actors remains socially acceptable: long-term speakers, know-it-alls, self-promoters, arguments and circumstance buyers should be discreetly slowed down. This is the only way to effectively avoid the narrowing of the potentially illuminating multitude of perspectives. All actors must have the chance to express their view of the class. Only in this way can the PC become a medium of social coordination, both of the interpretative views of a class and of those that can be derived or generated by the teachers Optimization strategies become. These are not just about questions of appropriate and promising action in the face of conflictual situations. It's also about the plausible Embedding these questions in collectively shared and to be explicated educationalInterpretation patternwhich, incidentally, are always implicitly (effectively) negotiated.
Ideally, a “continued [dialectical] change of roles” between judges and agents can then take place, as can be established by the sociologist Vierkandt (1923: 394), which is still well worth reading: “Everyone is able to commit those actions himself he ... continues to judge and make demands with his group mates. A wonderful mechanism, because in this way each individual contributes to creating and maintaining those demands under whose pressure he or she may sigh. All these members of the group are ... busy forging those chains and protecting the forged ones from rust and destruction, which they then have to wear during the hours of work. ”(Ibid.) Addressee built up and internalized pressure of discursively negotiated, emergent, also normatively shaped options for action is reflected in the self-commitments, self-addressed expectations, commands, and possibly also prohibitions set up by the PC. All of this can promote demanding educational action: “It is only through this pressure that the performance of the individual reaches its real height.” (Ibid.) The educational action of the individual teacher can hardly evade the reference to the PC space of the common. In the best case scenario, the “ruse of reason” (Hegel) can unfold its effect.
Beyond the individual PK comes the Step ladderswhose importance for the long-term acceptance and efficiency of the PK cannot be overestimated, a design task that affects the entire school: the strategic coordination and consolidation of the reflective efforts of all PKs, based on the individual school-specific target profile. Ideally, the learning cultures of the individual classes can become universally accepted School learning culture aggregate, namely to the core of the pedagogical self-image of the same. This should always be open to necessary critical adjustments to changing influencing factors, whether they are due to the direct or indirect environment of the individual school, or whether they are due to personnel changes.
- The institutionalization of the PC as a process
In the Implementation phase Particular attention must be paid to socially responsible behavior: cautiously, deliberately, argumentatively with a view to the school's core business of teaching, initially only start with one class or at most one grade. This creates legitimation, for example through the experience of being able to work out better conflict solutions together and finding socio-emotional relief: only if Colleagues experience the PK for their everyday actions as meaningful and effective, they will accept this institution seriously and with commitment, help shape it and not reject it as an extension of a largely meaningless conference circus and let it run idle. Incidentally, this not infrequently applies to control intentions, projects and institutions outside the school. (For example, has it ever been convincingly empirically demonstrated that external evaluation significantly improved the quality of teaching, and this is ultimately what it is about?)
In the Stabilization phase For example, the following questions should play a role: How can the experiences of the Pks that have accumulated over the six months be combined into a class that promotes knowledge? Which efficient and effective (forms of) documentation are available? Which creative connections to the specialist conferences or individual school-specific school development projects are there in terms of content, process or structure? How should she PK according to the decision of the overall conference by doingQuality program anchored in the school become?
In addition to the previous analysis concept (see http://www.gym-kirn.de 2007):
That is important Written down of target agreements. Because "... once the thought has been put down in writing, it remains permanent, partly a teacher and educator, partly a welcome or an unwelcome reminder" (Vierkandt 1923: 401).
How can be expedient and appropriate demanding and complex target agreements with assertiveness design, formulate and communicate? (Teachers should not be satisfied with sub-complex routine requirements, for example with regard to homework or seating arrangements.) Which modes of effective communication of the target agreements in the class are found to be socially acceptable and expedient?
In this regard, the question must be asked: How does the secret curriculum of the school manifest itself in the inarticulate, unintended socialization process of the class? Which hidden processes and attributions of meaning impregnate the student-student-interactions and the student-teacher-interactions? Which identification, imitation, but also distancing processes take place how, when and why? Which positive and which negative influences do the different peers in the class have? What potential for cooperation, but also for conflict, arises from the dominant peer culture? (1) What is the significance of the class rambo, what is the meaning of the class rascals in and for the class? How are they to be treated for the sake of their own development and that of the class? How should according to the School Code of Standards non-standard behavior are dealt with? Should control and punishment shape the educational style of the school or was it worthwhile to recognize more and other than just deviations from the norm in behavior? In terms of its demanding task, the Class leader Be able to grasp and present the developmentally unfinished-fragile, socio-economic and socio-cultural life plan of the children and adolescents as best as possible. Against this background, it should be possible for him to elucidate the motives and motivations of the behavior and actions of the adolescents entrusted to him. The knowledge and observations of colleagues in the PC may contribute to a fair assessment of what can be observed.
Phase of Ensuring durability, even if there is a change of actors: How can the PK be legitimized in the long term? How can you avoid tiring, time-consuming routines from becoming entrenched? How can an education-oriented and not merely formal metaprocess of PK evaluation be set in motion and maintained for the purpose of process and result optimization? In all of these questions the PK as both a contingent and emergent social system (see below) to be checked against the yardstick of a potentially more plausible social system in order to establish legitimation. If one understands the PC as a supra-individual practical context, it is a learning institution, e.g. a resonance space for educational-creative solutions to conflicts. In this “learning environment, which learns at the same time by learning in it”, the actors “are dependent on previously existing practices in their options for action and for the articulation of their position”. So they act in pre-configured social contexts, patterns of action and norms, which as "objectively acting forces ... prevail in the group relatively independently of the change of the individual" (Vierkandt 1923: 400). At the same time, however, the individual teachers modify the “practical context, which [...] is the result and condition of individual action. Individuals (or collectives) then change social practices, the change of which in turn affects the individual experience and learning opportunities. "From this" mixture of active and passive, intentional and non-intentional occurrences "(Jaeggi 2014: 330f.), Previous forms of reflection can emerge, Problem-solving resources and strategies may prove to be only conditionally or hardly sustainable, so that “… the conviction of [their] general inappropriateness prevails [e] (Vierkandt 1923: 406). The entrepreneurial spirit, which was shaped by the original motivation of the PK format, which was established by the colleagues themselves, is (still) determined by the awareness of the contingency of this particular type of conference with its stubbornness and intrinsic value. This awareness can weaken over time and after the founding actors have left. If this spirit of the beginning can no longer be revived, then the customs and established rules of the PC should be subjected to critical examination. Then they should be modified, transformed in a collective learning process, and possibly even replaced by new social practices, processes, forums for reflection, possibly in other constellations, areas of action, organizational forms. The indispensable can only be achieved against this ostensibly apparently destabilizing background System trust in the PK be maintained in the long run.
- Teaching as an object of reflection in the PC
The PK addresses the teaching in a year class, i.e. the interaction structure and the interaction processes in the learning groups organized for two (orientation level) or four years (secondary level I), largely stable over time and thus potentially identity-creating.
Lessons are time-framed, integrated in a lesson corset and thus pre-structured interaction process, which mostly takes place in classrooms or specialist rooms of the school as an institution. This interaction process is thematically focused and necessarily didactically reduced and legitimized. The accentuation of technical compared to pedagogical reduction dimensions is v.v. Educational policy and often also ideologically controversial in view of differently prioritized, more affirmative or more critical connectivity goals. However, pedagogical relevance and the need for grading are basically in an almost indissoluble field of tension. These ambivalence Not only to endure it, but to want it to be didactically clever, communicative and supported by pedagogical confidence, open and yet goal-oriented, is an identification of significant teacher action that is mostly recognized by those affected, especially the students, but also the parents and even the colleagues.
The methodical planning addresses the learning group-related teaching implementation of the didactically justified thematic aspects. Corresponding considerations should be shaped by the following epistemological premise: Although lessons must be planned, due to its property as a complex social phenomenon of spontaneous order (in the sense of Hayek) it can only be planned and foreseen to a limited extent.The desirable openness of the instructor to the interaction process must therefore be preserved as well as the chance for learners to be involved in planning and operational processes within the scope of their insight.
The interactions between the face-to-face actors involved form a social system. This is characterized by processes of double contingency and reciprocal communication - although the distribution of roles between teachers and students is asymmetrical due to the system. If these processes succeed, trust-building, integrative social capital is created. Its constant cultivation is indispensable in the educational process, because: "Contingency and insecurity belong together, contingency on the side of events and insecurity on the part of the actors" (2).
In order to remain able to act in the face of the density of events and the pressure of the situation, reduce teachers necessarily the complexity of the interaction between teaching and learning (3). Also in view of the social fact that teachers, to a large extent unprotected, have to constantly prove themselves in complex face-to-face interactions (Helsper 2009: 72), they fall back on a variety of relieving behavior and action patterns: thought and action routines; selective information acquisition and processing; more or (rather) less (4) effective disciplinary measures with the aim of ensuring that as many students as possible can work with as little disruption as possible (Paris 2009: 58); Stress-relieving changes in teaching formats appropriate to the subject matter, etc. (5). Such strategies develop a personal habitus over time and with increasing experience. This enables the teacher to act emotionally and mentally relieved in and in front of the class without permanent individual decisions.
The classes-) Group analysis of the PC should epistemologically assume that only the general school conditions and the specific figuration of lessons from children and adolescents student do. On the one hand, they have a right to be valued, perceived and taken seriously in class as unique and unmistakable individuals; on the other hand, they must also learn to be perceived as a member of a social system (group, class, course, school), to be judged, and to behave in accordance with the norms. With regard to this normative expectation, it should be noted: The way in which they are positioned, connected and interacted with one another as students in the classroom determines their actions and behaviors with "... which do not result from the personality of the individual". In the lesson, "... a force is at work that does not reside in the person as such, ie as an individual being, but that arises from the mechanism of coexistence and interaction ..." and is realized "between individuals, outside of each individual" (Vierkandt 1923: 402f.). If individual students are discussed in the PC, then theirs should be Groups (des) integration be thematized and reflected on with regard to possible causes and consequences. In this context, it should be borne in mind that the heterogeneity of school classes and learning groups, which has increased in recent years for various reasons - including at grammar schools - poses special challenges for both students and teachers. The PK can offer itself as a suitable medium for their solution-oriented processing.
In doing so, however, the actors in the PK have to school-specific paradox put: Teachers teach groups - and not just individual students. Deficit group sociological training and, as a result, little scientifically based Reflection experience make it difficult for teachers but, Groups and Group processes as emergence phenomena diagnostic with its own logic and dynamics perceive, analyze and from this to derive group-specific action goals and promising approaches. Experience has shown that not a few teachers - also in the PK - tend to be less descriptive than as a result of a traditional, normatively shaped perception perspective hastily evaluating the behavior of individual or a few pupils as deviating from a (only rarely) explicit norm or even to pathologize them briefly. 7) This regressive reaction, as well as the unconscious to unacknowledged hope of those affected, may result in a kind of catharsis: psychological relief through haunting, often emotionally tinged articulation of the stress experience in dealing with students who deviate from the norm - from listless to aggressive - behave or even stage themselves on the classroom stage for various reasons. This hope is often combined with the (unspoken) expectation of the teacher to find solidarity in the PK in their discomfort and displeasure (joint releasing of frustration), perhaps also to compensate at least a little for the lack of recognition in the classroom. If it were to stay that way, however, the PK would only reflect the indispensable peculiarities, resistance, obstinacy and conflicts of the classroom.
In order to overcome such obstacles or to prevent them from arising in the first place, the PK participants are well advised to face the social fact in a self-reflective manner that they often only have a limited methodological repertoire at their disposal for the necessary analysis of group behavior. That is why they have to act particularly carefully and carefully: first class observations if possible (valued) free bring forward, collate, then, related to this, recall or explain educational norms and values that guide action. The conference leader is particularly challenged in this demanding work. Then you can alternative solutions in an open-ended, dialogical search and discovery process, e.g. in the face of social conflicts in the class found, weighed against each other and as options for action offered to teachers. These only come to the attention of the individual actors in the joint process of information aggregation and the exchange of ideas (consolidation and comparison of perspectives): "Existing practices are changed [...] by the collective and [...] reflexively accompanied transformation by those involved in the respective practical context. “(Jaeggi 2014: 329) A potential for innovation and change that overcomes the paralyzing power of the normativity of the factual can in the best case have an origin here (s), ie in a concrete practical context: thematize and promote the development of teaching.
An example: Pupils, teachers, observers (e.g. headmasters) and more or less informed outsiders (e.g. parents) perceive a class directly or indirectly as problematic in terms of its social behavior. In order to have a positive effect on this, the implementation of corresponding PK agreements should now all class teachers as "a kind of plural actor" (Tomasello 2014: 16) occur - regardless of their individually developed habitus. The rules agreed in the PC and communicated to the students must be authenticated by the behavior and actions of the teachers, consistently demanded and subject to sanctions. Experience shows that the class will soon act according to rules. If, from the point of view of the teacher, the class must be perceived as acting as a reflexive social group, then it must also be perceptible as a collective actor from the point of view of the class. In doing so, the instructors must ensure that the pupil perceptions, in accordance with the inevitable imperative of pedagogical eros in the educational framework can be done. This should be shaped by the articulated normative self-image of the specific school. As a result, no, as it were, systemically supported personal power should seep into teacher-student interactions.
- The PK as an in-school cooperation body sui generis
The communication processes in a PK are first and foremost important per se, regardless of a specific goal orientation. As one Art universitas across age and subject boundaries can they become one We-feeling contribute within the teaching staff. The prerequisite for this is that no camp formation poisons the working atmosphere, that habitus, tone and choice of words confidence building have the effect that the smartphone remains in the off mode, but participants and content are attentively perceived, respected, and perhaps also valued. The PK must not degenerate into a pounding, sluggish comfort zone.
Structurally not dissimilar to the social situation in the class, all actors should always use arguments that are inarticulate but effective secret curriculums be aware of your own school. Which individual school-specific, more or less articulated cultural dispositions develop (un) intended effects? These dispositions can manifest themselves as common interpretations of internal school “values” such as performance, competition, power, but also cooperation, solidarity, and appreciation. They are more or less consciously connected to traditions and memory traces (8). What potential for conflict but also for cooperation, which options for action, but also which restrictions arise as a result?
Which interactions take place on the front stage of the PK, which on the back stage? Are there links between the two stages? What roles do the actors play in each case? (9) The more authentically, openly and trustingly the colleagues in the PC (can) communicate, the more ineffective the backstage becomes, the more liberated, real, honest and goal-oriented can be worked on solutions that can do justice to the level of complexity of the respective challenge . Ideally shapesa basic optimism the PKthat a common collective intelligence was, is and will be on the move again and again: "Cooperation alone represents a process that can produce reason." (Piaget, quoted in Tomasello 2014: 13)
By definition, the PK offers on the action-relieved level of reflection a suitable communication forum, namely to promote knowledge Increase in complexity i.S. a mirror cabinet of the perspectives of the multitude of actors. In order to create an adequate picture of the class as a whole, the selective, natural fragmentary perception of the individual teacher is not sufficient; you have to capture the picture from different angles. The institutionalization of this multi-perspective lesson reflection as a PC also ensures Reflection continuity, even when changing actors.
A demanding level of complexity of reflection (10), which aims to do justice to the real complexity of socio-dynamic teaching interactions and problems, avoids the isolation of supposedly causal factors and the (receptological) teaching technologies derived from them Would necessarily result in learning effects - an ignorant mode of fading out contingency. What the teacher considers important does not have to meet with the acceptance of the addressee; Well-intentioned things can ultimately slip off without a trace on this, after all, quite unknown. Learning is an individual process anyway, alternating between chaotic and systematic. However, teaching (er) actions in the classroom are usually aimed at the class collective. On top of that, the teacher's ethos dictates that “… teachers encourage precisely what makes them vulnerable and vulnerable as educational authorities - the stubborn will and the autonomy of the pupil.” (Helsper 2009: 73) Therefore, teachers are well advised in the long run to maintain the necessary balance between closeness and distance in the teacher-student relationship.
Last but not least, the PK is a forum for articulation Stage for the perception of oneself and others. The PK can also be a protected space for coping with the isolation of lone warriors, which many teachers - more or less admitted and pronounced - perceive as unsatisfactory or burdensome: "He [the teacher] is supposed to alleviate the [today's] loss of reputation for school and knowledge, so to speak through his personality and is often overwhelmed. ”(Paris 2009: 57) It is true that“ this structural self-reliance ”(ibid .: 56) is an essential feature and also a privilege of the core area of his professional work of teaching (in front of) the Great, correcting and evaluating performance reviews, etc .: “He sees himself as a lone fighter, and he is too. Because, despite all appeals for cooperation and networking, teacher work is principally individual work. ”(Ibid. 55f.) Nevertheless, internal and external challenges and burdens in the PK collective can often be better transposed, addressed, dealt with and dealt with on the conscious level . The following applies: “It is precisely the strength and elasticity of loosely coupled organizations [to which the school belongs] that makes cooperation possible between their members, but not forcing them.” (Ibid .: 56 Note: 7; see above) This liberating Last but not least, insight opens up options for knowledge and action.
- The PC as a source of information for various actors
The PK brings together teachers with different subjects and different generations of teachers with different experiences. Long-standing teachers have accumulated educational experience over time and developed a more or less pronounced sensorium for the informal personal relationships between the students that shape the class atmosphere. Teaching professionals are more or less aware that “teachers and students in a class” form tense “figurations” with and against each other, constantly changing patterns: They have learned that in class “figuration processes take place that are similar to complex game play” (Elias 2009: 143f.). These cannot simply be traced back to the behavior and behavioral intentions of the individual actors. Therefore, and this one Advancement should be emphasized, is analytical above all the sociological view on the dynamic network of relationships and interactions of the lesson actors - and also those who are not present - asked, not the psychological one (reductionism).
Based on case studies, inexperienced teachers are involved in exchange with more experienced teachers in thought processes, which can make it easier for them to act individually in real lessons.
Interdisciplinary and interdisciplinary Agreements With a view to the respective class, they can also be agreed in the PK. (12) This wins one under the hand informal training and project function own coinage.
The prominent importance of the PC for the individual school can be shown in the scheduling at the beginning of the school year, also by signaling the educational importance Participation binding of all teachers. Last but not least, the temporal positioning of the Pks It makes sense to give new and less experienced colleagues a chance to reflectively self-assure their position in the classroom interaction and to broaden a serious information base and thus a basis for argumentation before parenting days. Also Teachers of the minor subjectsThose who teach only two or even one hour in a class depending on the subject can receive at least a reasonably satisfactory level of information via PK. It is conducive to collegial acceptance that the PC is a Relief of the certificate conferences may, yes should.
Teachers who will take on a new class according to the lesson plan also have the option, directly or indirectly, of obtaining information about the class in advance by participating in the PC or by studying the PC protocols. The latter also desirably applies to teachers who take on substitute hours in the class.
In retrospect, one or the other committed former class or subject teacher may want to look at how "his" class has developed, which can contain enlightening feedback for him. This can be communicated collegially and, if necessary, questioned, provided that the relationship level of the colleagues concerned allows this.
For the school principal, who should take part in as many Pks as possible, also in order to emphasize the prominent importance of the PC, these can be a useful source of information in the preparation, implementation and debriefing of class visits.(He will give his special attention anyway in the sense of his educational supervisory and advisory task, for example by taking on substitute hours or specific class observations.) He also receives important information for any potential problems. upcoming or necessary changes in the distribution of lessons. The fact that the school principal can perceive his colleagues in the joint PC with regard to their ability to reflect and interact in the adult discourse within the school should not go unmentioned (v.v.).
The headmaster should repeatedly advertise the atmospheric and functional significance of the educational conferences in school contexts, in general conferences, parents' council meetings etc. Stocks of knowledge, but appear as a produced and controversial space ”, ie as a contingent arena. That is why educational institutions today are “notoriously in need of legitimation”. (Helsper 2009: 67) In this respect, the PK can and should be understood, valued and shaped accordingly in its legitimation-creating multiplier function.
- Problems of opening up the PC
It is not without problems that communicative and in the best case, too emotionally protected space of the PK open to parent and / or student representatives. (Incidentally, this only mutated the formal status of the PK as a service meeting into a conference, which is semantically popular anyway.) Does this reduce the assessment and effectiveness of the PK or, on the contrary, possibly even increase it as a result of a joint learning process? If parents (representatives) experience that teachers with commitment, even with passion, with pedagogical competence, confidence and sensitivity struggle for the best solutions for the benefit of the children in a PK, then this will probably lead to an increased appreciation of teaching and school work.
Around the perspective assessments of the parents as the student With regard to the class community, the class teacher should seek discussion with the parents' representatives and, above all, the class representatives when preparing the PK. If necessary, he should ask for their views as written advance information. In special cases, the participation of these actors in a PC could be helpful. Last but not least, this could increase the legitimacy of the PC in the system context of the class and the school. In this respect, too, feedback from the PK agreements related to the addressees is a matter of course for the class leaders.
As for the question of opening up the PC, this is where the social challenge arises trust significant in all its facets. Trust comes quietly, and it gallops away. This “risky advance payment” (Georg Simmel) of trust is all the more possible and the more fruitful it is, the more fundamentally all actors succeed in at least tending to be or want to become a community of values for a period of time. In such a community of values, educational confidence has a stable foundation - certainly in view of the interest-based motivations of the actors idealistic approach - but can schools and lessons even flourish without one? Realistically, all actors should be aware of the fact that trust is characterized by the fact that one only experiences its true meaning and significance when they are visibly damaged: A trust disorder, whether process-related or triggered by a breach of trust, can be in the specific school context due to the Hardly correct timely correction of the time limitation of the process participation of many actors. In such a normative context, which the school community should aggressively represent as a model, the institution of the Pedagogical Conference can create a lasting, trust-building, social capital-generating, effective, sustainable one social network tie. In doing so, the school actors should always be aware of the fact of the objective leap of faith: Parents entrust their children to the school in the trust that they can experience a lasting good upbringing and education in the institution of their choice. The parents' decision to choose has demonstrably an efficiency-increasing influence on the results of school work, especially when the desirable competition of comparable school offers takes place on site.
- PK as an internal evaluation tool
Within the school, the PK will have a more sustainable effect as a place, mode of procedure, perhaps even as a community Problem description, recording, processingand development of problem-solving offers perceived, experienced and accepted, then it can play an important role in the sense of an evaluation body supported and legitimized by colleagues. This is not about data acquisition, collection, coordination and interpretation that pretends to be transparent (13). It is about the mutual understanding of the colleagues in the discourse, especially with a view to well-founded strategies and procedures for optimizing the teaching (of the individual teachers) - also with regard to common educational goals. In this regard, emphasis should be placed on the Target agreements be turned off: To what extent were which target agreements achieved within the agreed time frame? On the basis of which criteria are the success or failure of the implementation of target agreements intersubjectively comprehensible and verifiable? How is this (emerging or non-appearing) success noticeable in the interaction of the class? Which procedure, which (unideological) search processes promise improvement if necessary?
It is no coincidence that questions and thus, so the hope, food for thought at the end of this treatise, which therefore cannot and will not be conclusive (14).
- Noteworthy educational sociological insights into the social system of instruction are provided by: W. Herzog 2009: 155-194.
- Ganßmann, H. 2007: 69. A "contingent event“Is not necessary as it is; it could have turned out differently. It did not come about causally, but the event is only coincidental in a very broad sense, for example in what Max Frisch meant: “Coincidence does not come about by chance.” Or, with the Zauberberg narrator, another literary aperçu try to ensure that “not every story happens to everyone”. In other words: "The word 'contingent' [...] means, by virtue of the philosophical tradition that is inherent in it, [...] the life that has been abandoned and cannot be rounded off as a cosmos by the subject." "(Adorno 1979 : 208f .) It means "[...] not the individual coincidental, not even the general coincidence abstracted from it, but coincidence as an essential character of life." (Ibid.) Formulated somewhat more soberly: "In general, a k.en state of affairs is understood to mean something that neither necessarily exists (like the one that [ss] all bachelors are unmarried) nor necessarily does not exist (like the one that [ss] 2 + 2 equals 5), the existence of which depends on chance in this sense [...]. ”(Regenbogen / Meyer 2013: 358) A simple example of a contingent situation: being a teacher is contingent in so far as a person who is in fact a teacher is also another profession could have learned. In view of alternative courses of action with regard to the choice of profession, however, the person has chosen the teaching profession. The criterion of decidability with regard to alternatives - a moment of freedom of modernity - thus characterizes a contingent situation. (In this respect, incidentally, the assertion that there is no alternative to a political decision is a declaration of bankruptcy by politicians; the assertion is also ideological, as it hides specific interests behind pretended “practical constraints” and thus basically ignores contingency as an essential feature of the political If the PC has decided as a meaningful discourse space for the solution-oriented processing of classroom and school-related conflicts, then the decision once made remains entirely contingent in the future and thus in principle open to other action decisions.Lessons generally take place “under the condition of contingency and lack of causality” (Meseth et al. 2011: 21); Here, contingency primarily refers to the “gap between pedagogical communication and individual learning” (ibid .: 239), which has to be continually reduced methodically and communicatively.Following Parsons, it can be stated: In complex situations, actors interact in such a way that the indeterminacy of their own behavior corresponds to the indeterminacy of another: So not only expectations and expectations have to be taken into account, but these expectations also have to be complementary to each other. A clear example of this so-called "double contingency“Is the interaction between the penalty taker and the goalkeeper in a football game. (See Berger / Hammer 2007.)“While [resulting effects] can be reduced to the sum of the individual causes, they stand out emergent effects in that they are neither causally fully explainable nor fully predictable in their expected system properties. "(Regenbogen / Meyer 2013: 178) In evolutionary biology, the emergence term refers to the fact that" [...] "higher" properties of more complex organisms cannot be fully explained by the interaction of system properties and thus differ in terms of novelty. ”(Ibid.) The teaching is about the communicative“ emergence potential of thing and appropriation ”(Meseth et al. 2011: 237). The PK is about the discursive emergence potential of individually different perceptions of lessons and students, of pedagogical interpretation patterns and of controversial modalities of action. What is epistemologically and practically significant for social systems is that the emergence of social systems is stimulated by double contingency, which Ganßmann emphasizes (2007: 76).
- “While in other intellectual professions a very restricted attentiveness to the 'thing' is allowed to prevail, the teacher's conscious attentional tension is tremendously fragmented as a result of the complexity of the pedagogical situations. In addition, the teaching activity requires about five to seven hours a day to be focused on a pedagogical collective with the utmost concentration, and almost always - assuming a sense of pedagogical responsibility - somehow in a spiritually creative way. With this assignment of the teacher there is usually much more missing than with non-educational intellectual professions, the possibility to switch on small intermittent voltage drops. "(Winnefeld, F .: 1971: 150f.)
- Example: For generations of teachers, the ritual of standing up collectively to greet them at the start of a lesson has proven to be effective. From the point of view of the result, however, this ritual is hardly effective, because experience shows that the restlessness increases again after the students have sat down again. Inexperienced or insecure teachers often react in such and similar for them confusing or conflict-prone situations (the perceived complexity) with a relapse into familiar or earlier as a pupil themselves experienced, i.e. biographically acquired, more or less conscious or reflected behavioral patterns. The aim is to counter the impending loss of control, primarily on the front stage. This includes this ritual of the beginning of the lesson. The pedagogically desirable goal of attention-centering in a polite ritual at the beginning of the lesson can be achieved simply and unpretentiously by the teacher waiting patiently until everyone is calm and then starting the lesson after the mutual greeting.
- Following Kounin, Dollase (2004: 15f.) Gives a lecture on the control skills of a teacher required in the reality of teaching:
"Overlap" aims at multitasking ability, i.e. the ability to control different interaction processes in parallel, e.g. to moderate a class discussion and at the same time to effectively and discreetly prevent a side conversation between two students. “Frictionlessness” avoids breaks (through volatility), thematic inconsistencies, standstill and indecision. "Momentum" avoids delays, tenacity of the communication process, over-problematization; tries to synchronize a learner-appropriate work pace.
According to Dollase results from the relevant investigations for the optimal Group size of school classes: “The smaller the groups, this sentence is firmly established, the better the learning success.” (Ibid .: 15) Between 20 and 35 students there are “no measurable differences in performance, but more work for the teachers”, something in the public discourse like to be kept secret. “There is real quality progress below a group size of 17 people and even further below that, the learning progress is dramatic. ... The best lessons are individual lessons. ”(Ibid.) The latter must, however, be contradicted insofar as the hermeneutically indispensable importance of the emergence level of group lessons for interactive learning processes must not be ignored and not only emphasized on cognitive learning progress. Based on experience, we can assume that group sizes under 10 or over 30 have a negative influence on the emergence quality of classroom interactions. In principle, however, a question mark should be placed behind the magic of the number with regard to the positive or negative effect of class size: In view of variables such as the age of the students, heterogeneity of the class, teaching objective, nature of the subject, teaching method, room size, etc., an empirically robust argumentation for It is difficult to objectify this emotionally charged issue of class size.
- Please note the Dialectics of reducing and increasing complexity, of - more or less conscious - action-relieving mechanisms of reducing the complexity of institutional situations. These are characterized by temporal and social pressure to act and an opposing increase in complexity in conscious, i.e. in reflection phases for the purpose of gaining knowledge. Luhmann already postulates in the real classroom interaction "a constant social reflexivity ... the teacher has to observe step by step what the pupils are observing, and this in a situation in which the pupils are practically forced to observe him, the teacher . The teacher is thus compelled to observe himself through the pupils ... ”. (N. Luhmann: 2004: 141.)
Furthermore, Luhmann states the "change of the system level, in the transition from the needs of the school men to pedagogical reflection" (ibid.), What as system-theoretical justification of the PK can be interpreted.
Enduring and balancing the dialectic of individual and social behavior in a class is a responsible, sensitive one Leadership rolethat is required of teachers every day. Kerschensteiner already knew: “... gifted individual educators sometimes fail as class teachers, ... to hold together the easily fluttering children's souls. An observation that was also known to many teachers in the 19th century who first worked as private teachers, then as teachers in schools with a large number of people ... If I can teach a child something, I cannot teach it to a group by a long way. The pedagogue and psychologist Winnefeld wrote in 1948…: ´If the groups are enlarged or reduced according to plan, some observed people manage to control large groups brilliantly, while others, who can steer smaller groups relatively skilfully, fail in larger groups' . “In contrast to one-to-one lessons, you need one Group control abilitythat require special perceptual sensitivity and contact capacities in view of complex face-to-face interactions. In addition, a "personal spaciousness or personal weighting" is necessary in order to be able to "deal with very different types, different abilities, tolerantly and generously." (Dollase, R.2004: 14) This cumbersome formulation aims at a personality trait that experienced lesson observers will immediately notice: a teacher who fills the room, who, due to her natural charisma, shows an omnipresent presence, also in the teaching role of the students as authentic, relaxed, pedagogically tactful and is confidently perceived and taken seriously. By the way, there are teachers who are able to interpret their teaching role in the classroom in a lively and dynamic manner, while outside of the classroom they are experienced as being withdrawn (v.v.).
- This is not least due to Training deficits traced back: Do today's trainee teachers learn to create a (sociologically, educationally and psychologically) qualified learning group analysis? Do you have the necessary conceptual and conceptual (thus also heuristic) repertoire available?
- See Dimbath, O .: 2011: 146, 154.
- On the everyday descriptive concept of Front and back stages see E. Goffmann: Place and localized behavior, in: Goffmann: We all play theater - self-expression in everyday life. 13th edition Munich 2013 : 99-128. Goffmann identifies "a significant role" of "control over the backstage" in the (factory) work process: "... through the backstage one tries to buffer oneself against the deterministic demands of which one is unencumbered." subjective student point of view, and the more so, the more the lessons are designed and implemented: "... no social institution that does not have some problems that have to do with the control of the backstage." (111) Here is in an informal, often regressive "backstage language" (117) that is free of any role compulsions, circumventing, ignoring, commenting, etc. verbally, but above all non-verbally social classroom success can be detrimental.
- If classes a block far as an artistic activity i.S. If the creative-aesthetic design of interaction culture shapes the self-image of teachers, it is necessary to consciously renounce sophisticated, well-designed planning on the part of the experienced, confident teacher. Only then can contingency be understood as an organizational principle of teaching that enables teachers and students to think and create freedom. Contingency in the preparation and development process, however, requires the professionally and didactically versed as well as pedagogically competent teacher personality. Only such a personality can recapture the free, classroom interaction processes (Contingency management), so that they do not dissolve in unacceptable arbitrariness. An example: The subjective perceptions that come up in the spontaneous reception phase of a U-conversation about a poem should flow into intersubjectively shared and accepted interpretation hypotheses in the course of the development phase. Classes are different from sociable, informal reading and discussion. (See basically: Seel, M. 2014: 340ff.)
- N. Luhmann and K.E. Schorr describe the limited plannability and controllability of lessons in view of its overcomplexity as a “technology deficit”. (See Scheunpflug 2004.)
Teaching is a complex social phenomenon opposite the premise of the constructivism "Hardly ever fully known or measurable". It is therefore also a fiction to assume that only what is quantifiable has relevance. This knowledge is dictated into too technical evaluation instruments in the homework book. Spontaneous orders or self-organizing feedback systems are namely what is epistemologically significant and refers to the phenomenon of contingency, "... like a large part of social formations the result of human action, but not of human design ..." (Hayek 2011: 212).
- In addition to the specialist conferences, the PK offers teachers the opportunity to Horizon of the own Interdisciplinary goals to tackle what is to be strived for in the sense of a sustainable concept of education. For example, project lessons can be promised to an efficient and willing class. Or spiral curriculum - at least i.S. a pre-structuring - interdisciplinary goals can be promoted: training of the competency of text capturing, for example through the integrative development of working techniques and methods of text analysis; In order to train speaking skills, specific exercises, for example the oral protocol, are necessary. Such competencies, which are later particularly in demand (also on the part of the university), the pupils can only learn sustainably under one condition: if they are internalized in as many areas of application of the different subjects as possible, as it were automated through diverse, constant exercises. (See below: Excursus.)
- This education, school and lesson-related reduction in complexity must not be confused with the overly simplistic perception of the school social system and its teaching subsystem on the part of a mostly non-professional parenting and public: the underestimation of the highly complex processes in these systems, whose intrinsic logics close to monocausal explanations and suggestions for optimization - also those of media-mediated empirical educational research, provided that their data are unreflectively misunderstood positivistically as a source for educational conclusions or are instrumentalized in (educational) political terms. (See Hartong 2014.)
- The current reading of the stimulating and rousing book "The digital educational revolution" (2015) provokes insofar as my knowledge-guiding thesis and demand to understand teaching processes as emergence phenomena requires an additional reason: Even and especially when digitized content, methods and learning processes are presented on the basis of convincing arguments Especially in subject areas that require explanation and instruction, the socially and hermeneutically significant effects of human interactions and educational activities should be given special attention - perhaps in future also in virtual spaces. In doing so, “the specific pedagogical aspects of (class) teaching” (Meseth et al. 2011: 238) must not be disregarded. This demand is also justified in view of “Big Data ... as an education optimizer” (2015: 144) opening up teaching freedom (especially for individual support), but also paradoxical “demands” and considerable “side effects” (ibid.). To respond to this challenge constructively - also in the sense of an opportunity-risk assessment - this requires intercollegial communication spaces and "systematic [r] collegial [r] advice" (ibid .: 182): The PK could here as " Ideas laboratory ”(ibid .: 181).
Lower secondary education - educational advisory conferences:
Adorno, Th.W .: Words from abroad.  In: Braun, P. (ed.): Fremdwortdiskussion, Munich 1979: 198-211
Berger, R. / Hammer, R .: The double contingency of penalties. An empirical analysis. In: Soziale Welt 58 (2007): 397-418
Braungart, W .: Aesthetics of Politics, Aesthetics of the Political. Wallstein Verlag, Göttingen 2012
Dimbath, O .: Forgotten the system. On the forgetfulness of social systems. In: Dimbath, O./Wehling, P. (Ed.): Sociology of Forgetting. Theoretical approaches and empirical research fields. Constance 2011: 139-166
Dollase, R .: What defines successful teaching. 2004:
Dräger, J./Müller-Eiselt,R .: The digital educational revolution. The radical change in learning and how we can shape it. Munich 2015
Elias, N .: What is sociology? Weinheim / Munich, 11th edition 2009 
Ganßmann, H .: Double contingency and economic action. In: Beckert / Diaz-Bone / Ganßmann / Swedberg (eds.): Markets as social structures. Frankf./M. 2007: 63-77
Goffmann, E .: We all play theater - self-expression in everyday life. 13th edition Munich 2013 
Hadot, P .: Philosophy as a way of life. Ancient and Modern Exercises of Wisdom. Frankfurt a.M., 3rd edition 2011
Hartong, S .: New regulation of education in the age of "governance by numbers". The example of standardized educational reforms in Germany and the USA, in: Leviathan 42, H. 4, 2014: 606-633
Hayek, F.A .: The Errors of Constructivism. In: Vanberg, V.J .: Hayek Reading Book, Tübingen 2011 : 209-229
Helsper, W .: Authority and School - On the Ambivalence of Teacher Authority. In: Schäfer, A. / Thompson, Chr. (Ed.): Authority. Tübingen 2009: 65-83
Herzog, W .: School and school class as social systems. In: Becker, R. et al. (Ed.): Textbook of the Sociology of Education. Wiesbaden 2009
Jaeggi, R .: Critique of Life Forms. Berlin 2014
Kounin, J .: Classroom Management Techniques. 2nd edition Münster 2006 
Lakoff, G./Johnson, M .: Life in Metaphors. Construction and use of language images.
Carl-Auer Verlag Heidelberg 7th edition 2011
Luhmann, L .: Writings on pedagogy. Ed .: Lenzen, D. Frankfurt a.M. 2004
Meseth, W. / Proske, M. / Radtke, F-O .: What does a communication-theoretical modeling of the subject “teaching” achieve? In this. (Ed.): Teaching theories in research and teaching, Kempten 2011: 223-240
Paris, R .: The teacher's balance of authority. In: Schäfer, A. / Thompson, Chr. (Ed.): Authority. Tübingen 2009: 37-63
Rainbow, A. / Meyer, U. (Ed. :) Dictionary of philosophical terms. Hamburg 2013
Scheunpflug, A .: The technology deficit - thinking about teaching from a systems-theoretical perspective, in: Lenzen, D. (Hg.): Erziehungswissenschaft. A basic course. Frankfurt / M. 2004: 65-87
Seel, M .: Active Passivity. About the scope of thinking, acting and other arts. Frankf./M. 2014
Tesch, G .: Linguistic borrowing. Linguistic analysis and model proposal for the upper secondary level. In: Language and literature in science and teaching 52, 14th year 1983, 2nd half year, pp. 69-87
Tesch, G .: German in language contact. A subject of language teaching. In: DU 6/92: 84-98
Tomasello, M .: A natural history of human thought. Berlin 2014
Vierkandt, A .: Social theory. Main problems of philosophical sociology. Stuttgart 1923
Winnefeld, F .: Pedagogical contact and pedagogical field. Contributions to educational psychology, 5th edition Munich / Basel 1971 
From the writings of Plotinus we learn that “... he took the subject ... from the problems that arose in his teaching. As answers to precise questions within a very precisely delimited topic [,] the various logoi plotins are geared towards the needs of his students and try to exert a certain psychological effect on them. "(Hadot 2011: 43f.)
When taking over a 9th grade at a rural grammar school in the middle of the last decade in the subjects of German and social studies, it became apparent during introductory oral communication exercises that the students acted extremely inhibited and almost without exception were unable to formulate more than two or three sentences in context.
The social parameters of school and class: approx. 90 percent non-academic background, approx. 25 percent migration share, dialectic lingua franca (German standard language, so to speak, first foreign language), gender distribution almost even.
Central target according to the school's quality program:
Being able to formulate, communicate and engage in dialogue correctly and well, both orally and in writing.
Communication-theoretical preliminary consideration:
As an extension of the classic communication model, the mere signal function - more precisely: signal effect - should be heuristically and hermeneutically taken into account both in the communication process and in the reflection on it, not only theoretically, but also from the practical-pragmatic perspective.
An evident example:
The default two-stage Communication exercise: The students are presented with around 50 illustrative, thematically disparate images on tables that have been moved together (or on the floor): cut from tourism catalogs, advertising brochures, gazettes; Postcards, photos. Each student chooses a picture and then explains their selection decision in the plenum. In a second phase, three pupils organize themselves in a “narrative group” according to a lottery procedure: they link their three selected pictures to a story which they then tell the plenary. A “literary quartet” (possibly high school pupils) assesses the presentations against the background of jointly (previously in plenary) developed quality criteria.
(At the end of year 10 repetition for the purpose of evaluation - if desired.)
Joint development of quality criteria for keyword-based five-minute sessions Subject lecture:
In the pedagogical conference, the criteria catalog is presented to colleagues in the other subjects in the class. In the current school half-year, each colleague gives two or three individual presentations in their subject area, which are assessed objectively and communicatively (according to the catalog of criteria) and assessed (if necessary within the framework of the epochal grade). (As the headmaster, I had the opportunity to participate in an advisory capacity.)
In the second half of the year, (20-minute) small group presentations are given, with original forms of presentation stimulating the group competition, e.g. dialogical presentations, including plenary sessions, spiced with creative media accessories.
In the DU there are many variants Five set models elaborated and as part of the American debate practiced. Video-based analyzes, feedback and suggestions for improvement improve the communication performance in terms of processes.
The target perspective:
be able to take a position that is technically and in each case well-founded, argumentatively powerful, rhetorical and communicatively comprehensible and convincing, without word confetti and obfuscation phrases covering the (ethical) substance of the argument presented. In any case, the - often unconscious or unreflected - ethical-moral substance and coherence of the arguments should be subjected to (institutionalized) ideology-critical permanent examination - especially to protect the speakers!
Keyword-based oral protocols can be arranged as a further communicative practical exercise in all subjects at the beginning of the lesson.
On top of that, these have the charm that all class participants can quickly recall the status of the discussion or development of the previous lesson, which is particularly helpful in one- or two-hour subjects in terms of mnemonics. This also offers an additional and student-oriented grading situation.
Essential student assessment skills can be trained here!
Text analysis skills acquire and routine:
In German lessons, the students learn, among other things, to access factual texts (textbooks, newspaper reports, comments etc.) in a targeted manner. (The more opinion-forming the text is, the clearer the communicative context must be.)
The German teacher introduces the analysis method to the colleagues in the pedagogical conference so that they can offer technical application situations in their lessons.
For example, the biology teacher can (have) a textbook text - which students often find cumbersome - specifically text-analytically developed with a view to training reading skills in the classroom. He could, for example, distribute slide copies of the textbook text to small groups that are divided into labor, which are then processed in the groups on the basis of a specific assignment.
The group results can then be presented, commented on and assessed in the plenary session.
After the verbal and communicative initial reception of the text (with the aim of preliminary topic or problem abstraction), the following group assignments are possible:
⁃ Divides the slide text into meaningful sections.
⁃ Mark the words in the slide text that you consider to be keywords for reasons of reason.
⁃ Marks linguistic and rhetorical peculiarities in the slide text. Example: (political) comparisons or metaphors or foreign words (such as anglicisms) and their function in the text.
⁃ Paraphrases difficult passages of text. Pay particular attention to technical vocabulary and syntax (of the textbook).
⁃ Formulates (for younger pupil readers) text development questions and formulates (for them) catchy, catchy answers.
⁃ Formulates problems, questions that (have) arisen for you as a result of the text.
In the case of argumentative, opinion-forming texts, the methodology is particularly focused on the
to pay attention to the hermeneutic reception situation. For example, each student reads a political editorial in a given, reasonable time.Following this initial reception, he formulates the author's intention recorded by him in writing on a film snippet, whereby the title and the end of the text often contain clear signals of understanding.
These individual reception theses of the students are then discussed in the plenary in a text-related manner with the aim of understanding a common thesis on the author's intention. This is then verified, modified, falsified (and, in this case, redrafted) through a thorough text analysis.
It is important that in the context of the pedagogical and / or the respective specialist conference, teachers reflect on the teaching process together using the pupil slides, also to make sure of the hermeneutic text reception situation, which can be particularly helpful for colleagues in the not primarily hermeneutic subjects.
Only through a variety of forms of exercise (subject-specific varied and well-founded) can demanding formulation, communication and text analysis skills - to name just a few of the most important - be firmly (!) Rooted.
Technical work, project topics:
Also, and especially in the area of linguistic reflection, there are attractive areas of exploration, which incidentally, due to their empirical basis, evidently do not even set the plagiarism trap. Examples:
- Use of metaphors in political comments: Suggestion for editing texts: two weeks leading article of a (national) daily newspaper, if necessary (thematic) comparison of two newspapers (internet publications for example at dnnd)
- Use of metaphors in sporting goods, in the features section, in the business section
- Use of foreign words and anglicisms in political comments, in sports reporting, in economic policy texts, in advertising language, in Internet texts (compared to print media), etc.
Please send feedback, criticism, comments, additions etc. to [email protected]!
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