|Hazard codes||O, XI, Tw gondola station|
|RIDADR||UNO 3264 8 / PG 3|
|HS code||2834 21 00|
|Hazardous substance data||7757-79-1 (hazardous substance data)|
|Toxicity||Oral LD50 in rabbits: 1.166 g anion / kg, Dollahite, Rowe, southwest. Vet. 27, 246 (1974)|
|description||Potassium nitrate (chemical formula: KNO3) is the nitrate of potassium. It is a crystalline salt and powerful oxidizer that can be used especially in the manufacture of gunpowder, such as fertilizer and in medicine. It can be produced by the reaction between ammonium nitrate and potassium hydroxide and, alternately, by the reaction between ammonium nitrate and potassium chloride. Potassium nitrate has several uses. Its major uses include: fertilizers, stump removal, rocket propellant, and fireworks. It can also be used for nitric acid production. It is also useful for food preservation and food preparation. In pharmacology, it can be used to treat asthma and relieve high blood pressure.|
- Potassium nitrate is mainly used in the manufacture of gunpowder or other explosives, but is also used for fireworks, for lucifer matches, for curing meat, for manufacture of certain types of glass, for flux in metallurgical samples, for some dyeing and that Medicine used.
- In agriculture, potassium nitrate is used as a water-soluble and practically chlorine compound-free source of nitrate nitrogen and potassium nutrients. Because of the specific properties of the product and the benefits, target markets are related to high-quality crops such as vegetables, fruits and flowers. In addition, chlorine-sensitive crops, such as potato, strawberry, beans, cabbage, lettuce, peanut, carrot, onion, blackberry tobacco, apricot, grapefruit, and avocado, depend on the use of chlorine-free k sources such as potassium nitrate for their quality.
- Potassium nitrate is used in a wide variety of applications including glass manufacture, explosives for mining and civil works, metal treatment, fireworks and, more recently, as means to dramatically increase the efficiency of the concentration of solar energy (CSP) plants, as described in the following paragraphs.
|Potassium nitrate fertilizer||Potassium nitrate is a water-soluble NK fertilizer that contains nitrogen and 46% potassium oxide with 13.7% nitrates (38.4%). Potassium Nitrate (KNO3) is a soluble source of two major essential phyto-nutrients. It is commonly used as a fertilizer for high quality crops that benefit from nitrate (NO3) nutrition and a source of potassium (K +) free from chlorine compound (Cl).|
Manufacturers typically make potassium nitrate fertilizer (sometimes referred to as nitrate from potash or NOP by reacting potassium chloride (KCl) with a source of nitrate. Depending on the goals and resources available, the nitrate may come from sodium nitrate, nitric acid, or ammonium nitrate resulting KNO3 is identical regardless of the manufacturing process. Potassium nitrate is commonly sold as a water soluble, crystalline material intended primarily for dissolution and application with water or in a prilled form for soil application. Traditionally this compound is known as saltpetre.
Growers appreciate fertilizing with KNO3 especially in conditions where a highly soluble, chlorine-free nutrient source is needed. In such soil, all N is immediately available for start-up as nitrate and does not require additional microbial action and soil conversion. Growers of high-quality vegetables and orchard crops once prefer to use a nitrate-based source of food in an effort to boost yield and quality. Potassium nitrate contains a relatively high proportion of K, with an n to k ratio of about one to three. Many crops have high k demands and can remove as much or more K than N from the crop. Applications from KNO3 on the soil are made before the growing season or as a supplement during the growing season. A diluted solution is sometimes sprayed on plant leaves to stimulate physiological processes or to overcome nutritional deficiencies. Foliar application of K during fruit development promotes some harvests as this stage of growth often coincides with high demand for K during the period of declining rooting and nutrient uptake. It is also widely used for greenhouse plant production and hydroponic culture. Potassium nitrate explains only a small part of the global k fertilizer market. It is mainly used where its unique composition and properties can provide specific benefits to growers. It is easy to handle and further apply, and is compatible with many other fertilizers, including specialty fertilizers for many high quality specialty crops as well as those used on grain and fiber crops.
|description||Potassium nitrate is a solid, colorless, crystalline ionic compound that exists as the mineral nitrate. Potassium nitrate is also known as saltpeter. The name nitrate comes from the Latin salt petrae, meaning salt of the stone or salt of PETRA. it is called saltpeter, or Chilean saltpeter is also used for sodium nitrate, NaNO3.|
|Chemical properties||Also known as saltpeter, KN03 is flammable, water-soluble, white crystals with a salty taste that grow at 337 ° C. melt used in pyrotechnics, explosives and matches, such as fertilizer and as an analytical reagent.|
|Chemical properties||Potassium nitrate is an odorless, white, or colorless crystalline powder with a salty, taste.|
|history||Most prominent use of saltpetre in human history as the main ingredient in gunpowder. The potassium nitrate used in gunpowder was originally obtained from the natural ore deposits of nitre. The small amounts that were formed as deposits of flowers on damp stone walls were identified as early as 2000 b.c.e in Sumerian writings. As the use of black powder expanded with the development of weapons, the demand for saltpeter exceeded supplies. This became embittered during times of war. In order to meet the demand for saltpeter to produce black powder, a saltpetre industry developed that followed prescribed methods to produce large quantities of saltpetre. The method depended on the processing of the dirt obtained from the areas where nitrates would naturally form. These were areas where animal waste such as the filthy floors of barns, the stables had accumulated and pens, caves or cellars lived in herds. The ammonia compounds in the urine and fecal wastes in these areas underwent nitrifi cation to produce nitrates, which combined with potassium in the soil to form saltpetre.|
|use||Although the most prominent use of nitric is for the production of black powder, potassium nitrate is also used as a fertilizer. In the first half of the 17th century, JohannRudolf Glauber (1604-1668) received saltpeter from animal pens and discovered that its use was to promote plant growth. Glauber included saltpeter with other nutrients in fertilizer mixes. Glauber's work was one of the first to indicate the importance of nutritional cycling in plant nutrition.|
|use||Potassium nitrate is a preservative and color fixative in meat that exists as colorless prisms or white granules or powders. it leaves a solubility of 1 g in 3 ml of water at 25 ° C. See nitrate.|
|use||This natural substance is the product of the breakdown of lime and urine. The white granules or powder are soluble in water 1: 3 but insoluble in alcohol. Potassium nitrate, also called saltpeter or saltpeter, was combined with sulfuric acid to nitrate cotton for the manufacture of collodium. It was also used with magnesium to make lightning powder and added iron sulfate developers to produced cool white tones in the collodion positives.|
|use||In the fireworks rivers, pickling meats; Production of nitric acid; Manufacture of glass, match, gunpowder; Frozen mixes. Agricultural fertilizer. Preservatives in foods. In dentrifices to reduce tooth hypersensitivity.|
|definition||ChEBI: The inorganic nitrate salt of potassium.|
|Brand name||Cholal-modifico; Cholal simply; Dewitts Pills for Back Pain and Joint Pain; Viridite K.|
|World Health Organization (WHO)||Potassium nitrate was previously used as a diuretic. Its use for this purpose is now considered obsolete, but it is still available for correcting potassium deficiency in at least one country. It is also widely permitted at concentrations of the order of 5% in proprietary toothpastes. In some countries the drug has been banned due to a potential carcinogenic risk resulting from the excessive use of nitrates and their conversion to nitrosamines.|
|general description||A white to the dirty gray crystalline body. Water soluble. Not flammable, but accelerates the burning of flammable materials. If large amounts become involved in fire, results or the combustible material may be finely divided an explosion. May explode under prolonged exposure to heat or fire. Toxic oxides of nitrogen are produced in the fires. Used in solid propellants, explosives, fertilizers.|
|Air u. Water reactions||Soluble in water.|
|Reactivity profile||Potassium nitrate mixed with alkyl esters may explode due to the formation of alkyl nitrates; Mixtures with phosphorus, chlorine compounds of tin (ii) or other reducing agents may react explosively [Bretherick 1979. P. 108-109]. The powdered antimony mixed with potassium nitrate explodes when heated [Mellor-9: 282 1946-47]. A mixture of antimony trisulfide and potassium nitrate explodes in a red heat [Mellor 9: 524. 1946-47]. Arsenic disulfide forms explosive mixtures when mixed with potassium nitrate, [Mellor 9: 270.1946-47]. A mixture of sodium acetate and potassium nitrate may cause an explosion [Pieters 1957. P. 30]. A mixture of potassium nitrate and sodium hypophosphite sets a powerful explosive in place [Mellor-8: 881. 1946-47]. A mixture of powdered zirconium and potassium nitrate explodes when heated above the melting point [Mellor 7: 116. 1946-47].|
|danger||Hazardous fire and explosion hazard if shocked or heated in conjunction with organic camdrial, strong oxidizer.|
|Health risk||Exposure can cause mild irritation of the eyes, nose, and throat.|
|Agricultural use||Commercial potassium nitrate (KNO3) known as saltpeter or saltpeter. It contains about 46% potassium than K2O. Saltpetre is commonly found in small amounts, as surface blooms in arid regions, in caves, and in other protected places. Saltpetre is associated with soda nitrate in the desert regions of Chile, Italy, Egypt, and the USA.|
|Agricultural use||It is a potash salt of nitric acid. Potassium nitrate (KNO3), also known as saltpetre or nitrate of potash, is a white crystalline salt that occurs naturally in saltpetre or saltpetre. It is a useful fertilizer for normal application and fertigation. Potassium (44% K2O) and nitrogen (13%) are the components of NK fertilizers, which serve as a source of potassium, in which extra chlorine compound is not desired.|
The agricultural grade of potassium nitrate is free flowing and non-baking, with a particle size in the range of 1500 to 400 micrometers.
Potassium nitrate, which is slightly hygroscopic and granular, can be spread on soil by trucks, manure spreaders, or by air spraying. In a compound fertilizer, a powdered grade of nitrate from potash does not cake. Potassium nitrate is made through the reaction of potassium chloride with nitric acid like:
The nitrate from potash forms an easily breakable crust on top. It is chemically neutral and its nitric oxide and potassium oxide ratio is approximately 1: 3. It has been used successfully as a source of nitrogen and potassium for tobacco, tomato, potato, corn, citrus, and carnation.
|Agricultural use||Saltpetre is another name for potassium nitrate, a white crystalline salty substance used in meat preservation and as an ingredient in gunpowder. It provides potassium and nitrogen and is used as a fertilizer.|
|Industrial use||Potassium nitrate is also called saltpeter and saltpeter, although these usually refer to the native mineral. A compound KNO3 substance, it is used in explosives, for blue steel and infertilizers. A mixture of potassium nitrate and sodium nitrate is used for steel-tempering baths. The mixture melts at potassium 250 ° C. nitrateis made by the action of potassium chloride onsodium nitrate. It occurs in colorless prismaticcrystals or as a crystalline white powder. It has a sharp salty taste and is soluble in water. The specific gravity is 2.1 and the melting point is337 ° C.|
Potassium nitrate contains a large percentageof oxygen that is readily given up andis well suited for pyrotechnic agents. Itgives a beautiful purple flame when burning. It is used in flares and flares.
Most enamels contain some oxidizing agent in the form of potassium or sodium nitrate. Only a small amount of the nitrate is necessary; 2to 4% is sufficient to service oxidizing conditions in most smelting operations.
In glazes it is sometimes used as a flux at the site of potassium oxide, but, because of its cost and solubility, very little of it is contained inglaze. Where conditions prevent the use of sufficientpotash feldspar, potassium oxide is introducedinto the mixture, usually in the form of thenitrate in a frit.
Potassium nitrite is a compositionKNO2 body used as an anti-rust agent, for theregeneration of heat transfer salts and for themanufacture of dyes.
|Security profile||Poison by intravenous route. Moderately toxic by ingestion. An experimental teratogen. Experimental reproductive effects. Change data reported. Ingestion in large amounts may cause gastroenteritis. Chronic exposure can cause anemia, nephritis, and methemoglobinemia. When heated, reaction with calcium hydroxide + polychlorinated phenols forms extremely toxic substance chlorinated benzodtoxins. A powerful oxidizer. Gunpowder is a mixture of potassium nitrate + sulfur + charcoal. Explosive reaction with aluminum + barium nitrate + potassium perchlorate + water (in storage), boron + laminac + trichlorethylene. Forms explosive mixtures with lactose, metal powder (e.g., titanium, antimony, germanium), metal sulfides (e.g., antimony trisulfide, barium sulfide, calcium sulfide, germanium monosulfide, titanium disulfide, arsenic disulfide, molybdenum disulfide), non-metals (e.g., boron , Carbon, white phosphorus, arsenic), organic materials, phosphides (eg, copper phosphide (l1), copper monophosphide), reducing agents (eg, sodium phosphinate, sodium thiosulfate), sodium acetate. Can react violently with 1.3 under the right conditions - benzene BIS (trichlorometh ~ d), boron phosphde, F2, calcium-shcide, charcoal, chromium nitride, Na-hypophosphte, ma2O2 + grape sugar), red phosphorus, (S + As2S3) , Thorium dicarbide, trichlorethylene, zinc, zirconium. When heated to decompose, it emits very toxic fumes of NOx and K2O. See also NITRATES.|
|Possible exposure||Used to make explosives, gunpowder, fireworks, rocket fuel; Match, fertilizers, rivers, glass manufacturing; and as a diuretic|
|First aid||If this chemical gets into the eyes, remove any contact lenses immediately and water immediately for at least 15 minutes, lifting the top and bottom lids from time to time. Get medical attention immediately. If this chemical comes into contact with your skin, immediately remove contaminated clothing and laundry with soap and water. Seek medical treatment right away.When this chemical has been inhaled, remove from exposure, begin res cue breathing (using universal precautions, including resuscitation mask) when breathing has stopped and CPR when cardiac action has stopped. Transfer to a medical facility immediately. If this chemical has been ingested, you will receive medical treatment. Give large amounts of water and induce vomiting. Don't let an unconscious person vomit.|
|To ship||Potassium Nitrate UN1486, Hazard Class: 5.1; Labeled: 5.1 Oxidizer.|
|Cleaning methods||It crystallizes from hot H2O (0.5mL / g) on cooling (CF KNO2 below). Dry them for 12hours under vacuum at 70o. The solubility in H2O is 13.3% at 0o, 110% at 60o and 246% at 100o. Technical grade salt was obtained after two recrystallizations|
|Intolerances||A powerful oxidizer. Dangerously reactive and sensitive to friction and shock when mixed with organic materials and many materials. Violent reactions with reducing agents; chemically active metals; Charcoal, trichlorethylene.|