What is ruku in the Quran
The made-up religion and the Koranic religion - Chapter 36 (1): Faith, prayer
There have been no points of contention among sectarians about issues such as the oneness, compassion and omnipotence of God, the hereafter and fundamental beliefs, with the exception of certain minority heretics who glorified Ali, Muhammad's son-in-law, or how the incarnation of God in sheikhs. However, there has been a wide divergence of opinion between the religion presented in the Qur'an and the religion preached by the sectarians on the subject of God as the sole lawgiver. According to the Koran, the only lawgiver is God and the Koran encompasses the entirety of God's commandments for believers. The sectarians, however, dared to first portray Mohammed in the introduction of religion as God's assistant, later to add the companions of the Prophet and then the sectarian imams and certain sheikhs who were to take on the garb of the original sources. They contributed to the creation of a religious code of law outside the scope of the Koran. That sounded like a contradicting message regarding the practice of religion. Whether or not a given act was legal depended on the approval or disapproval of the Imam, whose opinion was equated with the word of the Qur'an. For example, God has forbidden the drinking of blood, the consumption of dead animals, adultery, and murder. The sectarian imams added to this list of prohibitions the consumption of seashells, the chiseling of statues, and the wearing of gold jewelry by men. The majority of these were supposedly based on hadiths. The authority of God to impose prohibitions was thereby also carried out by mortals.
One of the biggest scandals that has taken place has to do with faith. Two opposing groups have emerged. According to one group, the Qur'an was a product of creation, while to the other it was eternal. This clash of opinions gave rise to not insignificant hostility between the parties. The Sunnis came to the conclusion that the Koran had existed for ages. The Sunni conception, which transformed the Koran - the sole source of Islam - into one of numerous literary sources of religion and which dared to annul verses of the Koran by claiming that some of them were eaten by a goat, showed its illogicality by adding attributed eternal existence to the Koran.
Irrelevant additions were made to Islam. Those who made the additions were convinced they were authorized to complete it. Among such absurd disputes was, for example, the question of whether God's mercy and grace existed in and with God for ages, or whether they were created afterwards.
The comments made in hadiths that gave the impression that God was not omnipotent caused problems for the various sects, but the controversy eventually ended. The general public, followers of these sects, of course, have no idea of such hadiths, among which 'God's feeling of His cold finger on the back of the Prophet' and 'God's lighting up of Paradise by baring His calf' is not only funny but also extremely ridiculous are. Such 'religious' considerations have provided the deniers with material to ridicule religion.
Inserting such concepts into religion as 'torment in the grave', descriptions of hell and paradise outside the context of the Quran and taking them as part of religion should be viewed as heretical approaches with regard to the afterlife. We need to get rid of such unsubstantiated creeds outside of the Qur'an.
The contact prayer according to the Koran
The correct interpretation of the contact prayer commanded by the believers is of great importance for Koranic Islam. The traditionalist mentality judges the descriptions in the Qur'an to be insufficient to understand the necessary exposition. This concern of the traditionalists demonstrates their ignorance of the understanding of religion. Man should make an effort to adopt certain principles for himself and try to imagine it in this context. As soon as the source of religion has been mentally clarified, we should try to understand the way in which we have to pray, fast, etc. - with the necessary references. In other words, the manner in which the prayer is to be performed is grasped in the light of the knowledge one receives from these sources. Man should not try to rephrase the source with his own thoughts. If anyone sees any discrepancies between today's practice and the real commandments of the Quran, one should make an effort to understand what it says in the Quran and not try to change the content.
Sala is described in minute detail in the Quran. And yet the commentators, who felt compelled to add more details, were dissatisfied. However, we do not claim that certain acts are illegal. For example, the recitation of the sura FATIHA (the first sura that opens the Koran) in every contact prayer is not a binding obligation, but recommended. The flaw lies in the fact that this duty was introduced later, while the Qur'an does not issue such an order.
To say that a certain act for the practice of prayer has not been explicitly stated does not mean that that act is against the Qur'an. The only thing is to know that it is not ordered by God. For example, the mistake is not in reciting Fatiha as such, but in claiming that its recitation is ordained by God whenever one stands up during prayer. We would like to point out that you should also bear this in mind in our comments if we continue. The following are the steps that a person should follow when practicing salat:
Ablution and total ablution
The ablution is mentioned in the Koran only as a precondition that precedes the practice of prayer. On the other hand, nowhere do we find a requirement of ritual purity, which is only achieved through ablution, for entering a place of prayer, for reciting the Koran and for any other type of worship apart from the contact prayer prescribed in the Koran. The following two verses mention the ablution, which must be performed before a salat, and the total, required, and ritual body ablution after intercourse. Everything we need to know is in the following two verses:
5: 6 Believers! As you line up for sala, wash: (1) your face and (2) your hands to the elbows. Strokes: (3) your head and (4) your feet to your ankles. And if you are in a state of ritual impurity (junub) due to sexual intercourse, purify yourself. If you are sick, traveling or in a state after the sexual act or if you come from the toilet and find no water, then touch clean, dry earth and do the dry washing (tayammum): rub your face and hands (afterwards) . God does not want to impose any distress on you, but He wants to purify you and complete his grace on you so that you are thankful.
4:43 Believers! Do not approach salat when you are intoxicated, until you understand what you are saying; still unwashed after intercourse, unless you are traveling! Should you not find water when you are sick, traveling or in a state after the sexual act or you come from the toilet, then do the dry ablution (tayammum) by touching clean, dry earth and stroking your face and hands ! God is gracious and forgiving.
1- Reasons for performing ablution before salat and for total ablution.
We can see from the contents of both verses that both types of ablutions are necessary in order to practice salat. In 5: 6 and 4:43 ablution is ordered before salat and it is made clear that a person who has had sexual contact should not do salvation until the whole body has been washed. Metaphorically speaking, washing can also serve as a spiritual cleansing of the soul - a preparation for contact with God.
2- When to renew the washing
At the end of both verses it is indicated what to do if the necessary water for washing is not available. The state that annuls canonical purity is explained: when the necessity has been relieved and one returns from the “gait” (Arabic: “pit / pit”; used for toilet or water closet); We have avoided using the word “bath” where other natural needs can also be fulfilled. No other conditions (for example bleeding, consumption of camel meat or “letting out the gas”) than those already described require a renewal of the washing.
3- When to perform the "Ghusl" (total, ritual washing)
To have come into contact with women (sexual intercourse), the state of the so-called junup (linguistic term for the state after intercourse), requires washing the entire body before the contact prayer. This requirement is not made in any other state. The root "janp" of the word "junup" means "togetherness, closeness" - d. H. sexual contact (also foreplay and so-called “petting” fall into this category).
4- How to do the washing
At the beginning of verse 5: 6 the manner of ablution is described. In the text, after the imperative “wash” the body areas follow: “Face and hands up to the elbows”. And the imperative "strokes" is followed by the body areas: "Head and feet to the ankles". If someone were to tell you the following: "Wash the bathroom and the kitchen and wipe the hallway and the entrance", you would surely understand that the entrance has to be wiped and not washed. However, for some reason, most Sunnis interpreted the “strike” that preceded the “foot” as “wash”. Nor can we conclude from the order in which the areas of the body are quoted that the act of stroking is an intermediate process that applies to the head alone. It is not possible that the imperative “wash” applies to the feet. Conventional practice comes from fabricated hadiths. For example, according to their hadiths, the feet of the Shiites should be covered with water. It is not our intention to refute hadiths with other hadiths, but to show the contradictions between the sects. Süleyman Atesch points out a very interesting detail on this topic:
Almighty God has commanded us to wash two essential areas of the body: the face and the arms. The imperative “wash” is followed by the body areas “the face and the arms”. He ordered two areas of the body to be painted, the head and feet to the ankles. The first of the two body areas that follow the imperative “wash” refers to a single part of the body (face), while the second indicates a pair (i.e. hand). Similarly, the first of the two areas of the body that follow the imperative “strokes” also refers to a single part of the body (head), while the second refers to a pair (feet).
(Süleyman Ateş, Encyclopedia of the Koran, Edition 1, ablution)
During the ablution, the face and hands are washed up to the elbows; wiped the head and feet with water. That's all. This unity should be adhered to. Nothing may be added or deleted from this unit. If you want, you can blow your nose after washing, rinse your mouth, rub your neck with water, wash your feet, and if you wish, you can also recite verses or pronounce special religious lines. One thing is certain, all of these actions are not mandatory. God has clearly and clearly explained the manner of ablution.
5- The total ablution (for ceremonial impurity)
It has already been explained that total washing is only required after sexual contact. Two Arabic words explain what we have to do. The word "Tahara" in 5: 6 means "to be cleansed" and the word "Ghusl" in 4:43 means "to wash". There are no detailed descriptions of what to do. No imperatives like 'Wash this and that part of the body up to this and that area.' 'Rinse your mouths three times and clean your noses by inhaling water into your nostrils and blowing your nose three times.'; 'Don't leave a single area of your body unwashed, pour water over your right shoulder first, then your left shoulder.' ... In view of the fact that there are no such instructions, we should understand the verb 'gasala' only as washing. The word tahara means to purify. Everyone who has taken a bath is considered "washed". Even a child would understand the command "Wash!" Yet adults are at a loss in interpreting this command without realizing that their incomplete understanding of the pure truth arises from their own incompetence. To compensate for their shortcomings, they accuse the Quran of inadequacy while using other books as sources in which they are given details that they add to the Quran.
6- What to do if there is no water
Under normal circumstances, water scarcity is not a daily occurrence. Exceptionally, if there is no water available, the person is commanded to do the ablution by tayammum, i. H. rubbing your hands with clean earth and then wiping your face and hands.
7- A strange contradiction to the Quran from the Hadith:
Aisha, Ummul Mu’minin reported: The Prophet urinated and Umar stood behind him with a can of water. He said, “What is this, Umar?” He replied, “Water for you to do the ablution.” He said, “I was not told to do the ablution after every urination. If I had to, it would become the Sunnah. "(Sunan Abu-Dawud Book 1, Number 42)
This obviously blatant and extremely unexpected contradiction to the Koran raises some questions. Even the Sunnis learn in their early childhood that, after having relieved themselves, it is a natural necessity to do ablution. What is Abu Dawud assuming here to subjugate the prophet with this lie? Should a prophet really disobey God's commands in the Quran? How can a prophet be empowered to question God's teachings in the first place? The ordinances of the Koran are clear in this regard. Neither can we infer from the Koran that the Prophet received special treatment in this matter. No, the beloved prophet is certainly above all the nonsense of the hadiths.
In the second chapter of the Koran, verses 144, 149 and 150, the Muslims are commanded to turn against the Holy Mosque (Masjidi Haram) in Mecca when the salat is performed. If it cannot be ensured which direction to pray in, salat can still be practiced by reminding himself that God is omnipresent (2: 115).
Appearance and hygiene
There are no specific regulations regarding clothing during salat prayer. In private rooms and solitary prayers, the person can wear anything (or even nothing). When daily contact prayers are held in a community (e.g., at a place of worship), the devotees must put on beautiful clothes (7:31). From verses 2: 125 and 22:26 the keeping of the places of prayer clean is derived.
The appointed times for salat prayer
In 4: 103 the following is stated:"Contact prayers are an obligation of the faithful at certain times." The contact prayers (Salât) represent a divine service in which the individual is in the presence of God - in contact with God. There is no doubt that the Qur'an shows the exact times when the contact prayers are to be held. We speak of the compulsory ritual prayers prescribed by God. The contact prayers are laudable prayers. It is a way to turn to and remember God. In this sense, prayers can be offered at all times; however, not all prayers that can be offered are mandatory. If human z. For example, if you feel like it, a midnight prayer can be held even if we are not asked to do so. There is no doubt that the prophets and his companions offered prayers that did not fall during the appointed times.Even so, the traditionalist mentality made some of these prayers mandatory, others as "sunna", by ignoring the fact that the only source of religion is the Quran. Instead of returning to the Koran, they preferred to emulate the companions of the Prophet and his confidants. According to the Sunnis there are 5 prayers: morning, noon, afternoon, evening and night. On the other hand, the number of contact prayers among the Shiites is 3. In the past, this number was two or three among the Kharijis.
The prayers that are not explicitly mentioned in the Koran may very well have been said by the prophet, the caliphs or the Shiites. It is of course advisable to have prayers outside of these hours, but they should not be considered mandatory. The mistake lies in the misinterpretation of the hadiths. We will now discuss the names and times of the contact prayers, which are considered "binding" in the Qur'an.
Twilight Prayer (Salat Al-Fadjr)
The Arabic word "Salat" means "to make contact (with its creator)". It is used together with “ikama” for performing the prayer. The twilight prayer is called al-fajr in 24:58. The word al-fajr includes the time from daybreak until the sun rises. This is mentioned in the following verse:
11: 114 And establish salat at both ends of the day with the approach of night. The righteous deeds surely cancel out the bad ones.
The Arabic word "nahari" means "day" and "layl" means "night"; “Tarafayn nahari” means the two end points of the day. On the other hand, “taraf” can also mean “side, end, end point, context”. The meaning in this sense is then the twilight and the sunset, which include the early morning and evening prayers. To put it more clearly, the phrase 'zulafan minal-layl' (approaching night) is used to denote the time range in which night covers day.
We did not accept the letter 'wa' in the first section of verse 11: 114 in the sense of addition, but in the sense of explanation. According to Quranic Arabic, night is the period from setting to when the sun rises (2: 187). The times for the twilight and evening prayers are at both ends of the day, the area where night is close to day. See, for example, 2:53; 21:48; 13:26 for the various uses of the letter "wa".
In 24:58 (as well as in 11: 114) the time of the contact prayer is indicated. In other words, the time of the twilight prayer is between the first dawn and the rising of the sun.
Evening prayer (Salat Al-Ischa)
In 24:58 it becomes clear that the word "Ischa" means the following: The extended time from sunset to dark has arrived. The same word is also mentioned in 12:16 and 79:46.
24:58 Believers! Let those whom you have by right and those of you who have not yet reached maturity ask your permission at three times: before the twilight prayer, at noon when you take off your clothes, and after the evening prayer . These are three times of seclusion for you. Apart from that, it is neither for you nor for them an offense to go in and out of one another. So God makes the signs clear to you. God is all-knowing, all-wise.
Some translators interpreted the evening prayer as a late night prayer. The reason may have been the undressing when they got home from the last salat of the day they had done. However, the word "Ischa" clearly marks the evening time. Therefore the terms “night prayer” or “late night prayer” are incorrect.
The times of the twilight and evening prayers are scheduled at 11: 114. If one of the prayers is held at dusk, the other will be performed symmetrically in the evening. The time of the evening prayer is also the approach of night. In addition, there is another verse that relates to the time of evening prayer:
17:78 Perform prayer as the sun goes down until dark, and read the Quran at daybreak. Verily, the reading of the Koran at daybreak is (specially) attested.
The term "the inclination of the sun" (duluk ul-schams) means, of course, sunset. So the time from sunset to dark is the time range in which salat can be held. It is interesting to note that the time of the twilight prayer along with the evening prayer is emphasized as the verse continues. Reciting the Qur'an at dusk also seems to be considered important.
The indicated times for the contact prayers reside in the prayer names; for example the twilight prayer and the evening prayer. In addition, the times are provided at 11: 114. In 24:58, the fact that the twilight prayer is the first and the evening prayer is the last is included.
The Middle (or Best) Prayer (Salat Al-Wusta)
The following is stated in the Koran:
2: 238 Notice the prayers, and especially the middle prayer! Give yourself completely to God when you pray!
There are no other verses that indicate different times than those we have already discussed and the verse mentioned above. With one prayer at the beginning and the other at the end of the day, the Salat al Wusta must be between these two contact prayers lie. Given that in all cultures people wake up during the day and the night is for the night to sleep, this prayer must be said during the day. (At 17:79 the midnight prayer was only imposed on the Prophet; it is only to be viewed as a voluntary, additional act.)
According to another consideration, the word “Wusta” also means “extremely excellent” and does not refer to any particular salatary prayer, but to the observance and practice of the salatas in the best, most perfect, and complete manner. The word Wusta is also mentioned in the following verses: 2: 143; 5:89; 68:28 and 100: 5. Examination of this word in these contexts will reveal its true meaning, God willing.
As can be seen, there is no mention that the salat should be performed five times a day, nor is it clearly stated what should be recited during salat, during the bowing and prostration. Even from the hadiths we cannot learn how long or short the prayer should be. Much of the details were formed by the personal opinions of the sectarians. There are numerous hadiths relating to the Prophet's performance of salat. Sometimes they're short, sometimes long. The sectarians limited the act, which was left to the personal discretion of the individual, and forced their imitators to do likewise. It is clear from the Qur'an that it does not prescribe specific verses to be recited during certain phases of prayer, whether standing, bowing, or sitting. Indeed, if the hadiths had been correctly interpreted, the conclusion would not differ. The sects have overwhelmed the requirements of salat prayer with their own inventions.
As for the missed prayers, there is a clear view: missed prayers are missed - they cannot be made up or combined with other prayers, as is common in some sects. On the other hand, the five times of salvation cannot be derived from the hadiths. There are some hadiths that prove that the Prophet kept the number of prayers at three. For example, the Shiites base their three times on their own collection of hadiths. The Shiite attempt to combine the five tenses in three tenses could have arisen from the idea of combining both teachings. Nowhere in the Qur'an do we find a union of contact prayers. It is clear that the compulsory contact prayers are those prescribed in the Qur'an. Sala prayer is considered timely when it is performed at the designated times and not when the number of prayers or units are kept in the bow. Like the Shiites, the Sunni sects Schafi, Maliki and Hanbali have tolerated the combining of salat times. Some thought that this was left to the discretion of the individual and others referred to "special circumstances".
However, anyone who wants to do more than 3 salatary prayers can of course pray more. Determining the number of contact prayers as five is the proposal of the Sunni sect. If the number were really 5, the Qur'an would have explicitly mentioned this fact. If we look at verse 17:79, which prescribes midnight prayer for the prophet and offers itself as a voluntary option, we see that God can easily tell us if He really had wanted five prayers. To make contact prayers not prescribed by God binding is unacceptable.
30:17 Praise God in the evening and in the morning!
30:18 And praise be to him in heaven and on earth - and in the evening and at noon.
Can a missed prayer be made up at another time?
The minimum number of contact requests has been given. However, there is no limit to the number of prayers that can be performed. They can be four, five, or more. Those who testified that the Prophet's Companions also performed the contact prayers at other times (for example, in the afternoon and at night) ended up declaring them binding. If we had to deduce the number of contact prayers to be kept from the habits of certain people, many more salads would be ordered such as ewwabin, kuschluk and kusuf prayers. The number is mentioned in the Quran and it must be taken as a guideline. God has not omitted or forgotten anything in His book.
It is a fact that pilgrims perform salat three times. Given that the Qur'an contains minute details about the practice of the ritual (including what a person who had to cut their hair) should do, we wonder why nowhere in the Qur'an is there any mention of the abridgment of prayers during the pilgrimage can be found? If the number was five, why wasn't it hinted at?
Why five times?
The fact that the number of scheduled contact prayers was not five and that the traditional practice of extra prayers in the afternoon and night was not compulsory was already championed by the kharijies and the followers of the Mutezila religious school. Those who tried to prove that the number of prayers to be performed during the day was five also invented a hadeeth made up. The Prophet received the message in his ascension to the presence of God that the number of prayers was 50 [d. H. a prayer every 28 minutes and 48 seconds !!!]. After which the Prophet on his return meets Moses who thinks this number is too many and advises the Prophet to return to God so that He may reduce the number. When asked, God reduces the number. But Moses is still not satisfied and asks the prophet to return to God one more time and repeat his request. After going back and forth several times, the number is reduced to five, after which the prophet is now too ashamed to return to God one more time, although Moses continues to insist on it. [Note of the translator: see Sahihi Bukhary Edition 1, Book 8, Number 345 and Edition 5, Book 58, Number 227 and Edition 9, Book 93, Number 608; Sahihi Muslim Book 1, Number 309.] According to this hadith, God appears as an incapable being who cannot assess man's potential and the Prophet as a fool, while Moses becomes his adviser and regulator of God's system and the savior of the Muslim community . So the “proof” for the number five is this fabricated hadith. The fact that there are hadiths dated earlier than the ascension of the Prophet, which state that the number of prayers is two (morning and evening) (cf. Bukhary), prove that the number increased up to the ascension got to. If that had been the case and the number of contact prayers had been two, the question arises: "Why then does the Koran not mention the subsequent increase in the number of prayers?" It can be assumed that only the 'middle prayer' was added afterwards. Why are the afternoon and night prayers not clearly mentioned in the Quran?
The range of contact prayer
The prayers are offered with the intention of remembering God (20:14). However, it is done at certain times and in a pure state; H. after a completed ablution. It is a prayer that is offered even in times of war.
4: 102 And when you are among them and lead the prayer for them, a part of them shall stand with you and let them take up their weapons; And when they have performed their prostrations, they should take a stand behind you. And the other group that has not (yet) prayed should come (to the front) and pray with you ...
Sala has existed since the time of Abraham (14:40). Even the Gentiles who conquered the Kaaba, where Abraham used to pray, performed ritual prayer, but in a distorted fashion (8:35). The habit of praying was later abandoned due to the desires of previous generations.
19:59 Then came after them an offspring who neglected prayer and followed their desires. So they are now safely on their way to doom.
Sala has three main acts: namely kiyam (standing up), ruku (bowing), and sudschu (prostrating). Although there is no mention of the obligation to read the Quran as such, we are told that the Quran is considered a memory (zikr) of God. This is an indication that the Qur'an is our guide in the practice of salat. His compassion, charity, grace, the creation of paradise and hell, including many other things, and also his omniscience are mentioned in the Quran. In practicing salat we are not bound by the Arabic recitation of the Koran. There is not even an order to recite from the Koran at all. So how can we infer that the recitation should be in Arabic? Because someone who repeats memorized words over and over again cannot concentrate on the words that come out of their mouth. In this way, the automatic repetition of the verses in a language that is not your own could lose meaning. You may have seen prayers admit they were thinking about other things while their lips repeated the words they memorized.
4:43 Believers! Do not approach salat when you are intoxicated until you understand what you are saying ...
The above verses suggest that it is of great importance to keep your head clear when praying; after all, we mention God's name and we should understand what we are saying. If understanding is important, how can a person who does not speak Arabic understand what he is reciting? Is there a difference between someone whose mind is clear and who recites verses he does not understand and someone who is intoxicated whose mind is clouded?
The Qur'an commands man to patiently ask God for help (2:45). How can a person who does not pray in his own language ask God for help? Do not those who oppose doing salutation in their own language prevent this command from being carried out? All the little details in the practice of salat can be kept, but real communication between the individual and God has been prevented because of arabophilia. In summary:
- God is praised during sala, so awareness should be clear (20:14; 4:43).
- The contact prayers require pious devotion and reverence (23: 2).
- The prayers hold a person back from bad deeds (29:45).
Praying in one's own language is essential for finding communication between the individual and his or her Creator. If you accept the fact that not all people can learn the Arabic language, then praying in your own language becomes indispensable.
72:18 The places of worship are of God. So don't mention anyone else besides God.
It is worth remembering that help can only be sought from God and not from prophets, from so-called "awliya" (saints) or from the dead.
Number of units (rakats) during salat
There is no concept of rakat in the Quran. If God had wanted it that way, He would have mentioned the number of rakats (units) for salat prayers. The units consist of kiyam (standing), ruku (bowing) and sudschu (throwing down). The general number of repeated units during a prayer is in practice: two in the morning, four in the afternoon and three in the evening. These numbers can also be understood as 'any number a person wants to do'.It is clear that these numbers have again been imposed as mandatory by the sectarians. The Prophet's companions and he himself may have performed a certain number of units at the Friday prayers in order to both ensure ritual unity and prevent confusion. Likewise, certain actions during the contact prayer, such as For example, raising the hands to the ears before the beginning of the prayer, saluting by turning the head from right to left after the end and in certain sectarian practices the light beating on the knees to indicate the end of the prayer, all fall into the same category. These actions can be exercised because there is nothing against such actions in the Quran. But to make them binding is wrong. One person could do a ten-unit salat in three minutes, while another would do one rakat for hours. There is no implied reason for the importance of the number of units. God does not force us to count the number of units during salary prayers.
Some inferred from the suggestion that it is possible to abbreviate a prayer in wartime, as mentioned in 4: 101-103, that a prayer should be performed with at least two units. “The fact that the abbreviated prayer consists of one unit suggests that salat prayer must consist of at least two units!” Is the argument of some. As evidence, they cite the following: when the Prophet presided over two meetings, he held two sessions each time. We are convinced that the shortening of the prayers does not address the unity, but the duration of the contact prayer. One rakat salat can last hours, while a two rakat salat can take less than a minute. The shortening of the prayers does not refer to the units, but to the duration. In a state of war it does not matter how many units are carried out, but how much time is needed in which the enemy could inflict damage. There is no mention of the rakats in the Koran. The reason we calculate salat in units is likely because of our conventional habits. The phrase 'la junahoun' (There is no guilt) in 4: 103 is used elsewhere to dispel the fear of Muslims. For example, the same phrase is used in 2: 198 to emphasize that pilgrims can freely orbit Safa and Marwa. Even in the absence of this verse, there would be no obstacle for Muslims to circling these areas. Likewise, with the reference to the abbreviation of the prayer, the question must indicate that there is no inconvenience in it. There is no other verse that addresses the duration of prayer. It could be that the Muslims felt uncomfortable shortening the prayers in wartime and that they were calmed down by this formulation. In 2: 198, the phrase 'la junahun' is also used to mean 'it is not a sin to seek God's favor'.
Logically speaking, the number of units cannot possibly add anything to the essence of salat prayer. The name of God is not recited more often when the number of units is more. A person can spend more time in a session repeating God's name as many times as they deem appropriate. Those who limited the number of sessions thought that the same salat should not be repeated more than once; thereby limiting the number of recitations of God's name. Accordingly, God has left the number of units to the discretion of each individual.
Volume of the voice
The prayers recited during the salat should not be too loud or too soft:
17: 110 Say: Call on God or call on the Merciful. Whichever you call, the most beautiful names belong to him. Don't say your prayer too loudly or too softly, but look for a middle ground in between! "
Friday prayer (gathering)
The verses related to this prayer are as follows:
62: 9-11 Believers! When salat is called on Friday, turn diligently to the remembrance of God and shut down business. Better for you if you only knew! And when the ritual prayer has ended, then scatter yourselves in the land, seek God's favor and remember God a lot so that you will be successful. And when they saw trade or pleasure, they hurriedly went there and left you standing. Say, “That which is with God is better than pleasure and than trade. And God is the best provider. "
From the above verses we derive the following:
- Friday (the day of the meeting) is the meeting day, and when the call to salat is heard, the person should stop doing business and move on to the practice of the meeting prayer;
- It is clear that the time allotted for this must lie between working hours, between morning (fajr) and evening prayer (isha).
- When the prayer is over, everyone goes back to their business; so it is not a holiday.
- Sala must be performed in the congregation; in contrast to the other contact prayers, which can be performed individually.
- No distinction is made between man and woman. (Even in the hadith one cannot find such a prohibition.) The Umayyads and Abbasids invented the rumor that Friday prayer was only for men.
Leadership in community prayers
When praying in community, the guide should listen to the recitation (7: 204; 4: 102).
7: 204 When the Qur'an is recited, you are to listen to it and listen carefully, so that God may receive you into His mercy.
Contact prayers in wartime
Verses 101-103 of the fourth sura describe how to do salary prayers in times of war.
In such an eventuality, one group will perform salat while the other stands watch. The praying individuals should not put down their weapons (weapons can be put on their side during torrential rains, in the event of illness or injury); at the end of the prayer the name of God is proclaimed.
Contact prayers in exceptional circumstances
2: 239 When (prayer time is and) you find yourself in dangerous (or extraordinary circumstances), pray just as you are, walking or riding / driving! When you are safe again, thank God for letting you know what you did not know before!
This clearly shows that salat prayer must be kept at the appointed times, no matter what the circumstances we may be in. On the other hand, in exceptional circumstances, we can perform salat prayer without being tied to the modalities of the prayer rite, which can make it easier to observe salvation in many situations.
Prayer at funerals
Although there is no specific rule for performing a prayer in front of a coffin of a dead person, verse 84 of Sura 9 indicates that no prayer may be held for those who have betrayed Muhammad. So we can deduce from this that a prayer can be held at funerals for those who did not betray Mohammed.
The call (adhan) to salat prayer
There is no prescribed call to prayer in the Quran. It goes without saying that a call to salat should be made on Friday (62: 9). How the call should be made is not described. The call can be made either in one's own language or in Arabic, either by a person (man or woman) or by public address systems.
There is no mention of the call to prayer prescribed by the prophet through revelation. According to the hadith, those who came too early to pray complained that they had to close their shops and those who were late complained that they had missed the meeting. Several suggestions have been made to find a middle ground. Following a dream (cf. Abu Dawud as Sunan 1/16) the human voice took precedence. According to another hadith, Bilal added the words 'As-salatu hayrun Minan Nawm' (prayer is more glorious than sleep) to the prayer for the twilight prayer. It follows that the call to prayer can be carried out according to the circumstances, since it is not a mandatory requirement of the Quran. We have already stated that everything that is not dictated by the Quran is left to your own discretion. The reason we thought it advisable to remind our readers of this fact is because there are some traditionalist Muslims who claim that the call to prayer cannot be made in the local language, but only in Arabic. In truth, this is their own idea (right or wrong) without any foundation in religion. Something is certain: the call to prayer has not been revealed and is left to your discretion.
Remembrance of God after salat
4: 103 When you have performed the salat, then remember God while standing, sitting or lying down!
God should also be remembered after saying salat. As provided in 4: 103, individuals have developed the habit of sitting down after completing prayer to remember God. That’s all right. But we must not forget that it is not a binding duty and that we are free to think of God in other attitudes as well.
39:45 When God is called ALONE, the hearts of those who do not believe in the hereafter are shocked together in repulsion. But if idols are named next to him, they start to be happy again.
There are many sectarian innovations that differ from sect to sect. Some of these innovations are: those already mentioned (combining prayer times, etc.), adding extra prayers like "Sunnah" and "Nawafil", inventing the clerical profession of prayer leader, forbidding women to lead the prayer, the "At-Tahiyatu" - To recite prayer that addresses the Prophet Mohammed as if he were alive and omnipresent, to add Mohammed's name to the Shahadah and not to mention God's name alone, to recite the zumm-us sura (extra chapter) after the Al-Fatiha, sectarian arguments about the way to hold fingers and hands ...
When discussing the call to prayer, we should note that no name may be added / mentioned or called out besides God's name. God ALONE should be remembered in sala.
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