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Liquid eggs, pasteurized eggs
Table of Contents
Liquid egg is an egg product made from pasteurized eggs. Chicken eggs are commonly used to make liquid egg. Liquid egg is mainly offered for the food industry and gastronomy in the forms of liquid whole egg, liquid egg white or liquid egg yolk.
Advantages over fresh eggs
These egg products have the advantage over fresh eggs that they can be kept for a significantly longer period of time; If stored correctly and at a constant storage temperature of 4 ° C for up to six weeks. For processing companies it is also advantageous that liquid eggs represent less work. The egg whites and yolks no longer have to be separated and portioning is much easier. In addition, liquid eggs are pasteurized. If handled correctly, the heat-treated eggs reduce the risk of pathogenic germs (primarily salmonella) spreading. From a business point of view, liquid eggs have the advantage over fresh eggs of being offered at a lower price on the market.
First, whole hen's eggs are delivered from the laying farms to the egg-laying farms. There the eggs are cracked open, the eggshell is removed and the egg white is separated from the yolk. For production, the egg white and yolk are first separated from each other and then brought together again for whole egg products. Before the raw egg product can be pasteurized, it must be freed of any peel remains, hail strings and membrane parts by filtration or centrifugation and, if necessary, homogenized.
Liquid egg pasteurization
Pasteurization is the most important stage in the production of liquid eggs. Pathogenic (disease-causing) germs, primarily salmonella, are safely killed here. In addition, the kitchen technology properties (such as foaming or emulsifying properties) and the taste of the eggs must be preserved during pasteurization. However, this cannot be completely avoided. For example, the viscosity of the products is increased after pasteurization.
Pasteurization temperature and holding times
The temperature for pasteurization must be adapted to the coagulability (coagulability) of the egg products. On the one hand, the eggs must not coagulate and, on the other hand, they must kill pathogenic germs as comprehensively as possible and at the same time preserve their technical properties. If the temperature is too high or if the holding times are too long, there is a risk that the functional properties of the end product will change. Egg white coagulates at 55 ° C, egg yolks and whole eggs between 62 ° C and 65 ° C. Egg yolks and whole eggs are pasteurized in Germany between 63 and 65 ° C with a four-minute holding time, egg white 52 to 58 ° C with a holding time of 3 minutes. Egg products with added sugar or salt allow higher temperatures and longer holding times.
Minimum temperatures for pasteurization
There are no legal regulations in the EU that regulate the temperatures and holding times for pasteurizing eggs. For the killing of germs, however, it is relevant how high the temperature and how long the temperature can act on the eggs (holding time). In an international comparison, the information on temperatures and holding times differ.
|country||Temperature in ° C||Holding time in seconds for whole eggs and egg yolks|
|Germany||63 to 65||180 to 240|
|Denmark||65 to 69||90 to 180|
|Source: Cunningham, 1990|
In the USA it regulates Food and Drug Administration (FDA) the heating times and temperatures that must be adhered to during the heat treatment of egg products.
|Liquid egg product||Heating time in ° C at 3.5 to 3.75 minutes|
|Sugared egg yolk||63|
|Salted egg yolks||73|
|Untreated egg white - pH 9||57|
|Treated egg white - pH 7||60|
|Source: Brade, Flachowsky, Schrader, 2008|
After pasteurization, the liquid egg mass is cooled and then either stored refrigerated or processed into dry eggs. After the heat treatment, liquid egg products are quickly cooled to below 4 ° C and filled.
For further preservation, liquid egg can be treated with the preservatives sorbic acid or benzoic acid.
Summary and brief information
- Tetrapotassium diphosphate is used for liquid egg
- Benzoic acid is used in the manufacture of liquid eggs
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