What is the geography of the transition zone

What is the basis of physical-geographical zoning. Geographical zoning: purpose, methods and principles

The surface of our planet is very heterogeneous. Areas differ from one another in terms of relief, geological structure, character of vegetation and soil cover. In order to somehow optimize the natural "chaos", the scientists have come up with zoning. Steel Geographers traditionally divides the earth's surface on the tape, binds, region and country.

What is the basis of physical-geographical regionalization? What are the main goals? On the basis of what principles and what methods are they carried out? You can find answers to these questions in our article.

Zoning the physico-geographical: the definition and the essence

Geographical Zoning (abbreviated - GRF) - is defined as division system mass. It enables you to mark the parts of a geographic coverage that differ in certain homogeneity. In the context of this uniformity, the common geological structure of the area, topography, climate, soil, flora and fauna are primarily meant.

In addition, such zoning allows you to draw clear boundaries between these parts of the geographic envelope.

Physio zoning employs many scientists, geographers, and explorers. Among them: A. Radishchev, HA Chebotarev, AI Voeikov, LS Berg, VP Semenov-Tyan-Shan, FN Mielke, NA Sun and others. At the present stage of the development of various zoning plans, Moscow State University employs specialists. Lomonosov.

A brief history of the evolution of physical and geographical regionalization

The first attempts at zone areas date from the 18th century. However, they were without a scientific basis and driven by a feature. These are the symptoms most often the most obvious thing: political boundaries or landforms.

In the second half of the XIX century it begins to grow rapidly in certain geographical sciences (climatology, soil science and others.). In this context, increased development of suitable specialized circuits for natural zoning. A little later in the autonomous area to isolate and economic regionalization.

It is believed that the theoretical basis of physico-geographical regionalization was inherent in the works of the great Russian scientist Vasily Dokuchaev at the end of the XIX century. Later the idea was picked up by the development of LS Berg and GI Tanfiliev. At the beginning of the last century on the regionalization physical-geographical began to speak seriously and foreign geographers (e.g. American, British and German scientists).

In this edition of Soviet science serious attention began to be paid back in the 1920s. And already in 1940 she created the first versions of physical-geographical zoning of the USSR.

As we can see, on this subject the work of many minds from Russia and other countries. What is the basis of physical-geographical regionalization? Let's try to answer this question.

What is the basis of physical-geographical regionalization?

GRF - is not only a process, an area of ​​parts (or water) in the areas, but also their detailed study, which includes the manufacture of detailed component-wise and complex features. But what is the basis of physical-geographical regionalization? The answer to this question is very clear and simple.

The physical basis of regionalization is the inhomogeneity of the individual components of the geographical shell. These components should include:

  • geological structure;
  • Relief;
  • climatic features;
  • Bottom cover;
  • Vegetation;
  • and fauna.

It should be noted that most modern geographers recognize the real existence of certain natural areas. However, the boundaries between them are not always clear and precise. Between neighboring physical and geographical areas usually certain transition zones the observed properties of the two neighboring areas within which exist (for example forest a certain transition zone between forest and steppes classical).

The main goals and principles of the GRF

This type of zoning has a variety of goals, such as basic research and applied research. But the main purpose of physical-geographic zoning is competent and evidence-based spatial differentiation of the geographic envelope of the earth.

Fruits GRF actively used by many industries and areas of human activity: agriculture, forestry, urban planning, medical geography, nature conservation and others.

The process of assigning geographical areas in a given area is carried out on the basis of special principles and on the basis of certain regularities. Are the following (basic) principles of physical-geographic regionalization:

  • Objectivity;
  • territorial integrity;
  • Zoning and azonal;
  • Uniformity of complex components;
  • the comparability of the zoning results.

Perhaps the most important of these is the principle of objectivity. We are talking about the objective existence of natural complexes as such. Agrees with her and agree with almost all geographers and landshaftovedy (except DL Armand). No less important in zoning and the principle of territorial integrity. It lies in the fact that the units of this zoning cannot encompass separate and geographically fragmented terrain.

Types of GRF

Geographic zoning can be different. If it is supposed to mark the areas in just one of the characters (landscape components), it will be considered private (or in industry). For example, it can be the soil or climate zoning of an area.

If the goal is to analyze GRF absolutely all terrain (climate, topography, soil, etc.) components, then it will be called comprehensive (or landscape).

In addition, natural zoning can be:

Based on this classification, GRF identifies different taxonomic units.

Methods of physical regionalization

On the whole, there are two basic ways to get GRF: the regionalization of the "top" zoning and "from the bottom". Both methods are widely used in the landscape and complement each other perfectly.

"Below" natural zoning is done as follows. By integrating small natural complexes, larger and more complex territorial complexes are assigned. It uses large-scale landscape maps. When zoning "from above" everything happens the other way around. Initially larger natural regions are assigned, and then through a variety of subject map analysis they are "broken down" into smaller natural complexes.

The physical and geographical regionalization is applied, and a number of classical scientific methods and techniques. Among them:

  • Cartography;
  • Aerospace;
  • Geochemistry;
  • paleogeographic;
  • Mathematics;
  • Computer simulation methods.

Taxonomic units GRF

Zonal natural zoning identifies the following taxonomic units:

  • geographical zone;
  • Area;
  • Subzones.

In azonal zoning decided to assign:

  • Physical geography of the country;
  • Area;
  • the province;
  • Areas;
  • Tracts;
  • podurochischa;
  • Facies.

The units of the highest level of territorial differentiation are: geographic coverage and continents. But the basic units of GRF as facies and tract.

Facies of the edge unit from GRF

Boundary (ie, elementary and indivisible) unit in the hierarchy of geographical systems considered facies. What's this?

Each of you must have seen a plowed field or a birch grove in the middle of the green meadows in your life. These elements are only exemplary for facies.

The term "facies" has Latin roots and comes from the word facies - "face", "image", "face". It is used by botanists, geologists, and biogeography. The most successful definition of this term was given by the Soviet scientist D. Nalivkin. According to him, fades - a piece of the earth's surface, which is characterized by the same natural conditions, flora and fauna. In other words, it is elementary and unitary environmental complexes.

Facies always within a biocenosis and is characterized by a single starting material, the same climate, water balance and soil cover. From the point of view of geosystem hierarchy, it is the main structural part and can be stowed away podurochisch.

There are three main types of facies:

  1. Continental.
  2. Marine.
  3. Transient (coastal lagoons, deltas, etc.).


Now you know that the basis of physical-geographical zoning is the heterogeneity of the individual components of a geographical coverage: climate, topography, flora, fauna and soil. This process is based on five principles: objectivity, homogeneity, territorial integrity, zoning (and azonal) and zoning comparability of results.

GRF can be different: the zonal and azonal, comprehensive and industrial. Geographical zoning divides the earth's surface into bands, zones and sub-zones, nature land, a region in the province and facies tracts.