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Standard land value: definition, calculation, significance
How much is a particular piece of land worth? The standard land value can often provide information on this. It reflects the average value of properties in certain locations and zones and is determined by a committee of experts. Where to find it, what it provides information about - answers to the most important questions.
How much is the land worth in a given location? This is a question that many property buyers, sellers, but also realtors ask themselves. Anyone who wants to better assess the value of the property will find important clues in the standard land value.
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In brief: what is the standard land value?
The standard land value is an average value of land in a municipality or individual areas (reference value zones) in a municipality. It is based on the collected purchase prices of the regional properties and is also influenced by the development status of the location of the property.
How is the standard land value determined?
The standard land value is determined by expert committees of the respective municipalities on the basis of actual sales in a certain period of time, at the end of every second calendar year. However, the municipalities can also decide that the standard land values are determined more frequently.
The appraisers receive the data for this from the notaries in their area, who send them copies of all notarized sales contracts. From this collection of purchase prices, land value maps or tables are created that reflect the land value in the various land value zones. These zones can include streets, streets or entire districts or towns. When determining the standard land value, different development states, for example degree of development, location or building options, must be taken into account. Whether a property is built on or not is irrelevant when determining the land value - it is always treated as if it were undeveloped.
The legal basis for the fact that the municipalities are obliged to determine standard land values is the building code (§ 196 BauGB).
Where is the data published and how can you get it?
The standard land values determined from the purchase price collection are published in the form of Standard land value tables or - more often - Land value cards. In the maps, plots of land with comparable usage and value ratios are divided into individual standard land value zones. These can include larger areas or just individual streets.
The land value tables or land value maps can be viewed free of charge at the respective expert committees. If written information is required, costs are usually incurred. These are mostly in the lower double-digit range. In addition, the federal states have been networked for some years Land value information systems (BORIS); here you can request relevant information online for a fee.
Land value information systems (BORIS) of the federal states
You can go directly to the land value information system (BORIS) of your federal state via the official community portal "Expert committees ONLINE": Here you can find the BORIS of the federal states.
How can the land value be determined using the standard land value?
The land value is determined by multiplying the standard land value by the number of square meters. So:
Land value (€) = standard land value (€ per m²) x property area (m²)
What significance does the standard land value have for individual properties?
Anyone who owns a property and knows the standard land value has a good indication of how much it is worth. However, an absolute precision landing with regard to the actual value is usually not possible. On the one hand, standard land values are statements about the past - depending on the market situation, the property can meanwhile be worth more or less. On the other hand, there are also differences within the individual standard land value zones.
When determining the specific value, further individual characteristics of a property must therefore be taken into account. For example:
- Degree of development
- Size and shape of the property
- Permissible development (e.g. permissible floor area)
- Existing buildings and plants
- For agricultural or forestry areas: soil properties (number of arable land, number of grassland), type of planting
Any contaminated sites on a property can also have a significant impact on its value.
How should the standard land value be observed when buying or selling?
The question of whether a property is developed or undeveloped can affect the value of the property. For example, if there is a ruin on a piece of land that is ready to be demolished, the value of the land is lower than that of a comparable undeveloped piece of land. Reason: The demolition costs must be taken into account. As a result, you are usually right in the case of undeveloped land if you use the standard land value and make appropriate surcharges or discounts based on the individual characteristics of the property. In the case of built-up plots, it is necessary to determine the market value that takes into account the individual characteristics of both the property and the development.
Law and taxes: what role does the standard land value play here?
Anyone who buys a rented property, such as an apartment building, can write off the pro-rata purchase price for the building for 40 to 50 years at two or 2.5 percent per year, but not the portion of the purchase price that is attributable to the property. The tax offices often determine this proportional property value using the official land value.
In the case of inheritances, gifts or divorces, the property value often has to be determined, for example in order to achieve a fair distribution or when it comes to the amount of inheritance or gift tax. The standard land value can often help here.
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