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The spread of COVID-19 continues to lead to restrictions in international air and travel traffic as well as adverse effects on public life.
Before unnecessary, tourist trips to Nigeria is currently warned.
Nigeria is less affected by COVID-19 in an international comparison. The focus is on Lagos and the capital region of Abuja (Federal Capital Territory).
Nigeria is still classified as a risk area.
The Nigerian Disease Control Center NCDC and the World Health Organization (WHO) provide up-to-date and detailed figures.
Abuja and Lagos airports are open for regular international air traffic. Short-term cancellations of flights and / or rebooking must be expected. The group of people authorized to enter the country is limited; currently only Nigerian nationals, persons with a valid permanent residence permit for Nigeria and diplomats can enter Nigeria.
The responsible Nigerian diplomatic missions of the Nigerian Immigration Service and the Nigerian Disease Control Center, NCDC, can provide up-to-date information on entry requirements.
Upon entry, proof of a negative PCR test must be presented in English, which must not be older than 72 hours at departure and the confirmation of which must be uploaded online. Children under the age of eleven are exempt. All entrants must submit a written declaration of their state of health using a standardized form, which must be entered in the "Nigeria International Travel Portal" prior to departure. After successful online registration, the portal generates a travel certificate with a QR code, which must be presented at check-in before departure and when entering the country. After entering Nigeria, travelers must go into a seven-day, monitored self-isolation / quarantine and undergo another PCR test on the seventh day. Proof of a PCR test in Nigeria that has already been agreed upon during the online registration and paid for in advance, in addition to being available by telephone, must also be presented upon entry. Test stations should be available in all states. People who do not show up for the second PCR test in Nigeria must expect sanctions in the form of travel restrictions, holders of Nigerian visas with their visa being revoked. After a second negative PCR test, self-isolation / quarantine may be ended.
Travelers who show symptoms of COVID-19 upon arrival or who develop them within the seven-day quarantine must expect to be placed under state quarantine. Additional hygiene measures announced at short notice upon entry are possible.
Transit and onward travel
The Nigerian land borders are officially reopened; When crossing the border, disabilities are to be expected.
For domestic air traffic, taking into account the Hygiene rules no COVID-related restrictions.
International air traffic, including within Africa, is currently basically unhindered.
Restrictions in the country
The states can make their own decisions on the extent of COVID-related restrictions based on recommendations from the Nigerian federal government. Individual states have imposed restrictions on movement and requirements within federal borders. There is a night curfew from midnight to 4 a.m. in the Federal Capital Territory and in Lagos. Employees in systemically important sectors and those entering from abroad at night are exempt from the night curfew. Shops, banks, markets, hotels and companies are open subject to strict hygiene measures; in some states, restaurants are only allowed to serve outdoors. Bars and night clubs are closed. Gatherings of more than 50 people are generally prohibited. Individual states may allow religious gatherings of more than 50 people with hygiene standards.
Mouth and nose protection is mandatory in public spaces. The authorities can check compliance with the mask requirement and movement restrictions at any time, sanction violations and take temperature measurements in public places.
The usual distance and hygiene rules and a mask requirement apply to domestic air traffic.
- Take the Nigerian entry regulations, the negative COVID test and the QR code for entry into Nigeria with you.
- Make sure you comply with the AHA regulations and also follow the instructions from local authorities. High fines can be imposed if the hygiene regulations are violated.
- Keep your entries in the crisis prevention list up to date and inform yourself on the website of the German representations in Nigeria.
- When you return to Germany, note the valid entry restrictions such as registration, test and quarantine regulations, inquire about the current conditions of carriage at the relevant company or your tour operator, if necessary, and contact the health department of your place of residence or residence if you are entering from a risk area . Further information is available in our continuously updated info box on COVID-19 / Coronavirus.
Security - Partial Travel Warning
Before traveling anywhere in the state of Borno including the capital Maiduguri, also by air, is warned.
Before traveling overland (by land)
- to the northern states, Yobe, Sokoto, Katsina, Zamfara and Jigawa,
- in the northern part of Adamawa state (north of the Benue River)
From traveling to the following states
- central and Northern Nigeria: Kaduna, Kano, Taraba and the southern part of Adamawa state (if not by direct air),
- Southern Nigeria: Ogun, Ondo, Ekiti, Edo, Delta, Bayelsa, Rivers, Imo, Anambra, Enugu, Abia, Ebonyi,Akwa Ibom and Cross Rivers State (if not by direct air),
- the offshore coastal waters, Gulf of Guinea, Niger Delta, Bay of Benin and Bonny Bay
is strongly discouraged.
Overland travel to any other part of Nigeria is not recommended. It is essential to avoid driving after dark.
Terrorist acts of violence, such as attacks and explosive attacks by militant groups on civil society, security forces, markets, schools, churches and mosques, are constantly being carried out in the north-eastern parts of the country. Attacks on humanitarian aid organizations active there were also recorded. On February 23, 2021, a major bomb attack took place in Maiduguri, the capital of Borno state.
In the northern and northwestern states, especially in the border area with Niger, kidnappings and serious acts of violence are increasing, the authorship of which is not clear, but which can also be attributed to terrorist groups.
A terrorist attack on police officers last took place in the capital Abuja in July 2018, resulting in deaths. The danger of further attacks, also in other metropolises in Nigeria, persists.
Busy places such as markets, mosques, churches, hotels, shopping malls and transport hubs such as bus stations and large taxi ranks that do not have reliable security measures present an increased risk of attacks.
The risk of terrorist or criminal kidnappings is high; there is a very high risk of kidnapping in the states of Borno, Yobe, Sokoto, Katsina, Zamfara, Jigawa and in the northern part of the state of Adamawa.
- If possible, do not travel by land in the country and avoid journeys after dark.
- In the case of unavoidable trips by land, carefully check the security situation on the planned route before and during the trip and carry it out with an armed escort (e.g. mobile police, MoPol).
- Pay particular attention in busy places and on special occasions and when visiting public or publicly accessible facilities and places.
- Please note the worldwide safety information.
In Nigeria, unpredictable local conflicts can break out in all regions. The causes and causes of the conflicts can be of a political, economic, religious, social and / or ethnic nature.
In particular, the states of Zamfara, western Taraba, the eastern part of Nassarawa, northern Sokoto and the states of Plateau, Kaduna, Benue, Niger, Kebbi are currently affected by armed disputes / intra-ethnic conflicts between nomadic ranchers and settled farmers as well as organized criminal gangs .
In the southeastern and southern states of Imo, Rivers, Anambra, Enugu, Ebonyi and Akwa-Ibom, there are currently frequent armed attacks on institutions of state security forces.
Roadside checks through checkpoints and restrictive measures by the security forces often take place across the country. In some states, short-term (nightly) curfews are also imposed.
Demonstrations and protests are particularly possible in Abuja and Lagos, but also in other large cities and can lead to violent clashes. In July / August 2019 and October 2020, they claimed numerous lives in Abuja, Lagos and other cities.
- Find out about the local media and be sure to follow regional curfews.
- Avoid demonstrations and large crowds in large areas.
- Follow the instructions of local security guards.
The crime rate in Nigeria is very high, and the general security situation has steadily deteriorated in recent years. In large parts of the country there are incalculable risks to life and limb through threats, extortion, robbery, kidnapping and murder, especially when traveling overland. Criminal acts are often committed by “false uniformed people”, i.e. criminals who pretend to be police officers or soldiers.
In the economic metropolis of Lagos, armed raids occur again and again, including in the urban areas preferred by foreigners, Victoria Island, Ikoyi, Lekki and Ikeja. Criminal incidents such as home break-ins and robberies are also recorded in Abuja and other major cities in the country.
The risk of kidnapping is very high in the states of Borno, Yobe, Sokoto, Katsina, Zamfara, Jigawa and in the northern part of the state of Adamawa, in the other states the risk of kidnapping is high.
When driving overland and on the routes between airports and city centers, violent attacks must be expected even during the day. Travelers were also repeatedly assaulted on the long connecting roads between the international airports and the inner cities of Lagos, Abuja and Port Harcourt.
There is a risk of piracy throughout the Gulf of Guinea. There are gang mischief and attacks on coastal towns, fishing cutters, oil tankers or oil platforms with hostage-taking. This also affects the river basins of the states of Delta, Bayelsa, Rivers, Akwa Ibom and Cross Rivers State.
The German representations in Nigeria offer detailed information on so-called prepayment fraud (scam).
- Keep your money, ID, driver's license, air tickets and other important documents safe.
- Protect cash, photographic equipment, and other valuables from the eyes of others.
- Avoid wearing jewelry, valuable watches, etc., especially in public places / markets. .
- Use only registered taxis or hotel vehicles.
- Avoid driving at night. For unavoidable night trips, always use a well-secured or even better armored vehicle and an armed escort (e.g. mobile police; MoPol)
- In the case of inevitable trips by land, carefully check the security situation on the planned route and carry it out with an armed escort (e.g. MoPol) if possible.
- Do not resist an armed robbery and hand over valuables.
- Be skeptical of unfamiliar e-mails, profit notifications, offers and requests for help from alleged acquaintances and do not make any payments / transfers without careful checking.
- Do not travel to Nigeria because of dubious business and other contacts, especially Internet acquaintances.
Nature and climate
There is a tropical climate in the south and warm and humid on the coast. In the inland from south to north Sahel savannah, where it is dry and hot.
During the rainy season from May to November, heavy rains can be expected, which can lead to short-term flooding of roads and landslides. Rivers can also overflow, unpaved roads outside urban centers can be undermined and difficult to pass. Traffic can be impaired.
- In the rainy season, keep track of weather reports and avoid flooded areas.
- Always observe prohibitions, information signs and warnings as well as the instructions of local authorities.
Infrastructure / traffic
Traffic routes may be impaired due to measures related to COVID-19 containment, see Current.
The infrastructure in Nigeria is poor. The supply situation - especially petrol, diesel, electricity and water - is often inadequate across the country. Fuels are of poor quality.
There is a domestic flight network where the safety standard does not always meet European standards.
In the dark, in particular, there is an increased risk of accidents and assaults, also due to the sometimes catastrophic road conditions.
The border crossing to Benin in Sèmè-Kpodji has officially reopened since December 2020, but crossing the border is still subject to severe obstacles.
- Avoid bus and motor vehicle travel across the country, especially after dark.
- Only undertake unavoidable car journeys overland with local and reliable people who are known personally, preferably in a convoy and with an armed escort (e.g. MoPol) and treat travel destinations and times confidentially.
- Avoid driving in the dark entirely.
The international driving license is required and is only valid in conjunction with the national German driving license.
The communication options (telephone, fax, e-mail) are often disrupted. Roaming agreements with German network operators are still incomplete in the mobile phone network (partly still the GSM standard, in metropolitan areas usually 3G or 4G).
Homosexual acts are a criminal offense in Nigeria. In the northern states of Nigeria, homosexual acts are subject to particularly severe penalties under Islamic law. Since the beginning of January 2014, the criminal law provisions applicable to the whole of Nigeria have been tightened. Since then, entering into homosexual relationships or participating in them up to the age of 14, organizing or supporting homosexual clubs, associations or rallies, and publicly displaying same-sex love relationships has been threatened with up to 10 years in prison.
12 northern Muslim states that use Sharia criminal law carry the death penalty on murder, rape and sexual intercourse outside of marriage; In the state of Kaduna, sexual offenses come under the threat of castration.
It is forbidden to take photographs of military personnel and facilities, airports, bridges and other facilities that are important for national security. It should be noted that these safety-relevant facilities are usually not marked as such.
In the capital Abuja and in the capital district Federal Capital Territory (FCT) there is an absolute ban on smoking in public buildings and means of transport.
Money / credit cards
The national currency is the naira (NGN). Credit cards should be used with extreme caution. It is advisable to bring cash in US dollars and / or euros. In international hotels, bills of 50 euros or more are exchanged for local currency.
Entry and customs
Entry and transit regulations may currently differ due to measures to contain COVID-19, see Current.
Entry and import regulations for German citizens can change at short notice without notifying the Foreign Office beforehand. Legally binding information and / or information going beyond this information on the entry and customs regulations for importing goods can only be obtained directly from the representatives of your destination country.
You can find the customs regulations for Germany on the German customs website and via the “Customs and Travel” app, or you can inquire about them by telephone.
Entry is possible for German citizens with the following documents:
- Passport: Yes
- Temporary passport: Yes
- Identity card: No
- Provisional identity card: No
- Children's passport: Yes
Comments / minimum remaining validity:
Travel documents must be valid for at least six months at the time of entry and have a machine-readable line.
When entering Nigeria, proof of a yellow fever vaccination is required for all travelers over the age of nine months, see health.
German citizens require a visa to enter the country, which must be applied for in person at the relevant Nigerian diplomatic mission abroad, such as the Nigerian embassy in Berlin, the Nigerian consulate general in Frankfurt am Main or - in certain exceptional cases - online.
It may take longer than three weeks for the visa to be issued.
Visas are generally issued with a validity period of three months, but the permissible length of stay upon entry is often limited to a maximum of four weeks.
After entering Nigeria, visas can be obtained from the relevant Nigerian authorities ("Nigeria Immigration Service“) Can be extended.
Nigerian short-term business, visitor or tourist visas do not entitle you to take up employment in Nigeria. Visas for the purpose of taking up work in Nigeria must be applied for separately from the Nigerian embassy in Berlin.
e-Visa / "Visa on arrival"
There is a visa for a limited group of people, which can be applied for online and is called "Visa on arrival", but which must also be applied for before entry.
On arrival in Nigeria, this "Visa on arrival" will only be issued if a written confirmation has been issued by the visa-issuing body after the application and before entering Nigeria. If necessary, this confirmation can be used as proof of entry authorization for the airline.
There are no known special regulations for the entry of minors.
The import and export of cash over the equivalent of US $ 10,000 is notifiable.
Items for normal personal use may be imported.
The export of works of art is controlled and is only possible with a clearance certificate from the museum authorities.
An import permit from the Federal Ministry of Agriculture and Water Resources is required to import pets. This is issued if pets are chipped and vaccinated, a rabies titer determination is submitted by a certified laboratory and a veterinarian has filled out a form about two weeks before entry and sent it by the ministry. In case of doubt, a timely inquiry should be made to a Nigerian representation.
The World Health Organization (WHO) has declared the disease COVID-19, which is triggered by the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, a pandemic.
In January 2019, WHO declared delaying or skipping vaccinations as a threat to global health. In particular, the lack of vaccination against measles poses a high risk when the number of cases increases internationally.
- As part of your travel preparations, check your and your children's vaccination protection against measles and have this supplemented if necessary.
Bird flu (H5N1)
Local bird flu outbreak in poultry farms has been reported in Canoe and Plateau State. Human cases have also been confirmed.
In areas with highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in poultry or disease from avian influenza in humans, one should currently:
- do not visit animal and poultry markets,
- Always cook poultry meat and eggs whole,
- Wash hands very thoroughly after preparing poultry.
An outbreak of Lassa fever has been observed in Nigeria since December 2017, but it is currently spreading with significantly decreasing intensity. Also states that have not yet been endemic for Lassa fever are affected (Edo, Ondo, Bauchi, Nasarawa, Ebonyi, Anambra, Benue, Kogi, Imo, Plateau, Lagos, Taraba, Delta, Osun, Rivers, FCT, Gombe, Ekiti States). The vast majority of reported cases come from Edo and Ondo State.
This hemorrhagic, bleeding fever is endemic to Nigeria, with recurring, previously localized outbreaks. The rural population is mostly affected. The viral infection is transmitted through contact with excretions from infected rodents, a specific species of field rats. This occurs mainly through atomized rat urine in the area of the rat biotopes, through the injured skin, the intact mucous membrane or as an aerosol through the respiratory tract. Infection can also occur through food preparation and contaminated food. Rats are eaten by the local population.
Sick people are infectious through all body fluids such as throat secretions, saliva, urine, blood and semen. If there is close contact with the sick, infection is also possible by airborne routes, which is why sick people should be isolated in special units in hospitals. However, the majority of infections run without clinical symptoms, i.e. asymptomatic.
In the early phase of the disease, treatment can be carried out with special antiviral drugs that are locally but mostly unavailable. There is no vaccination.
- Be careful when traveling in easy conditions in the outbreak areas.
- In particular, avoid contact with medical facilities and pay particular attention to accommodation and food hygiene.
The 2017-18 monkey pox outbreak has ended. However, this disease remains endemic in Nigeria. The infection takes place via the respiratory tract as droplet infection (contact with saliva or secreted secretions from infected monkeys), injured skin (bites) or ingestion of infected monkey meat. Human-to-human transmission has also been reported very rarely. The infection rate is low. There is no vaccination. Only people who have direct contact with infected monkeys such as veterinarians, veterinary staff, hunters and meat dealers are at risk.
When entering Nigeria, proof of a yellow fever vaccination is required for all persons aged ≥ 9 months. The vaccination is also medically beneficial as Nigeria is a yellow fever transmission area.
If the yellow fever vaccination is documented in a valid international vaccination card that was not issued in Nigeria, no re-vaccination or the purchase of an electronic yellow fever card (e-Yellow Card) is required for German citizens.
Nigerian nationals who have been vaccinated in Nigeria and want to travel back must show an e-Yellow Card. You should read the information from the Nigerian embassy in Berlin before you leave.
Nigeria has been considered wild poliovirus free since 2020. However, mutated vaccine strains still occur. Travelers under 4 weeks of travel time should therefore have a complete vaccination against poliomyelitis (polio) with booster vaccinations every 10 years. According to the WHO, residents and long-term travelers over 4 weeks are recommended to have a booster vaccination 4 weeks to 12 months before departure, see information sheet on poliomyelitis.
Cholera or meningococcal disease
Local cholera outbreaks have occurred in the Makurdi area of Benue State in the center of the country. Cholera is transmitted through insufficiently treated drinking water or raw food and can therefore be avoided through appropriate food and drinking water hygiene. Only a small part of the people infected with cholera get sick and of these again the majority with a comparatively mild course. The indication for a cholera vaccination is given only very rarely, usually only in the case of special exposures such as working in hospital with cholera patients, see information sheet on cholera.
- If necessary, seek advice from a tropical or travel doctor with regard to your risk profile.
When entering from African countries by land, it may happen that proof of a vaccination against cholera or meningococcal disease is required. Any request for proof of a vaccination against meningococci or cholera when entering from Europe should be emphatically rejected.
General vaccination protection
- Make sure that you and your children have the standard vaccinations according to the Robert Koch Institute's vaccination calendar up to date.
- Vaccinations against hepatitis A and polio are recommended as travel vaccinations, and also against hepatitis B, typhoid and rabies for long-term stays or special exposure. Due to the recurring measles outbreaks, protection should also be ensured in adults.
- Please note the instructions for use and help for the indication in the travel vaccination recommendations leaflet.
- The DTG offers up-to-date, detailed travel vaccination recommendations for specialist groups.
During the dry season (December – April) meningitis epidemics occur regularly in the countries of the “African meningitis belt” (see below). The main pathogens identified are pneumococci and meningococci.
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