In neisd who buys honor cords graduation
From German America
Table of contents:
I. The German-Americans and the Empire 1
II. Exchange of professors 16
III. Germany and world peace 34
IV. Cosmopolitanism in Science 39
V. Germanness and temperance 45
VI. The German author and the American author protection 66
VII. The American School and the German Spirit ... 86
VIII. Language Hopes in the New World 104
IX. Schiller and the German-Americans 115
X. The German Weltanschauung 125
XI. Books and magazines 146
XII. Newspaper Inventions 159
XIII. American and German Science 168
XIV. A German university based on the American model. 176
XV. The International Congress of Scholars 196
XVI. The Study of Women in America 211
XVII. Fichte and the German-Americans 223
XVIII. The Prince's Journey 230
XIX. Friedrich Wilhelm Holls 238
same author appeared:
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Making the situation clear to the German people is certainly not an easy one, and Prof. Munsterberg succeeded in doing this more perfectly than probably no one else would have done and no one else will.
pver attempt to our character and ours
From German America
HUGO MÜNSTERBERG Professor
Ernst Siegfried Mittler and Son, Königliche Hofbuchhandlung Kochstrasse
the law of June 19, 1901 and the law of translation are reserved.
All rights off
IN MEMORY OF
but a problem area. In its borders, German America is concerned with the influence of German culture
America; there is also the question of the rights and duties of Americans of German descent; and finally here comes America's relationship with Germany
and consider the influence of American culture on the German people.
The common name "German America" expresses this unity of problems
but the importance of these questions is growing every day and yet the uncertainty in their assessment seems to be growing even faster
to grow. In my work "The Americans" I had to pass all of this. The task there was to explain the essence of pure Americanism out of itself. The relationships
America's Germanness and life and striving
German-Americans were hardly considered there. The belief in the cultural value of German-American relations, however, had to awaken the desire, now also this one of prejudice
to illuminate the darkened question area once more.
The new topic, of course, required a new way of treatment. When I was portraying America, I could see the material in closed
it acts against sentences
German America there-
about the scattered and isolated, about anum moods and demands. who
If you want to get to know such an area, you should get right into
then it seemed to me the safest of a uniform
Presentation of a report
that every single contribution belongs not only objectively to the German-American way, but also practically through it
this area was initiated.
living reality of questions
most faithfully preserved;
intervene in our daily life. There could be no shortage of material for such a collection.
offer themselves as in
Many a hundred
I had in
ten years to German
American issues to speak. Of course, all of this was always only calculated for the particular hour. And since I
a few such occasional pieces next to each other, try to trace the traces of the chance
Letters, a lot of personal information in the
especially in that and some things have to be discussed
definitely be appreciated from the point of view of the special occasion. By complementing one another, however, they can perhaps lead beyond the temporary
German America 10.
Table of Contents.
The German-Americans and the German Empire
Exchange of professors
Germany and world peace
Cosmopolitanism in Science V. Germanness and Temperance VI. The German author and the American author protection IV.
The American school and the German spirit in
Language hopes and the German-Americans
X. The German worldview
Books and magazines
Newspaper Inventions American and German Science
XIV. A German university based on the American model
XV. The International Congress of Scholars XVI. Women's Studies in America XVII. Fichte and the German-Americans XVIII. The prince's journey
XIX. Friedrich Wilhelm Holls
176 196 211
The German-Americans and the Empire. '^ Compatriots!
young vigorous old ancestral seat of the purest
Chicago called, from the Anglo-Saxons to the enormous playground of all peoples. And with a happy heart I followed your call, because at this ceremony of the
the great flow of German immigration left Puritan Boston almost untouched, but Chicago for hundreds of thousands
become a new home by Germans
the right place to celebrate German days of honor, and I thank you happily that I have come to your German festival
Sharp can join you today
and once again
German language is allowed to speak to Germans. Of course, when I look around this proud "Germania" hall with its flags and pictures from Germany's greatest days, especially when I see the enthusiasm that shines from your eyes, it seems to me that
it's not just the one here
Talk to you
A strong living one
merged; In greater numbers than ever you have rushed to express your loyalty to Germanness anew; you were already cheering when the German anthem greeted you. What else is needed for the speech, what other words are needed than the *) celebratory speech given on January 27, 1908 in the "Germania" in Chicago. Colonel Halle presided; Consul General Wever, the tireless champion of German intellectual culture in America, brought the toast to President Roosevelt; the President of the University of Chicago, Judson, cheered him on
Kaiser out and by
I held the following
From German America.
a splendid celebratory cry, for which our souls are desperate today, the celebratory call: long live the emperor!
but, we wouldn't be real Germans if we really only got over the overflowing feeling today.
and thoughtlessly did not want to pay attention to the fact that we were actually faced with a strange world-historical question. Almost everyone who gathered here today for the imperial celebration
found, are American citizens and therefore political Republicans. The couple of us, who will also remain German citizens in the New World, are disappearing in the vast majority. And not just chance Republicans do you want to be, unconcerned-
about the political formation of yourself or your parents chosen.
new fatherland, the no, with the purest and
Enthusiasm you believe in the Democratic Republic of the United States. Their loud applause says it again: it is the proud republican consciousness, the most meaningful and profound
Republican spirit celebrating the mighty monarch: would it be worthy of us to silently ignore such contradictions-
if only ambiguity
it doesn't seem like
and blurriness such Often enough we hear it yes
in all ga; s,
that the spirit of
Republic is a fiery protest against the outdated monarchy. Is it true that you will be unfaithful to yourself if you
Form of government
and still look at the German imperial crown with exhilaration? Verily, we will not do justice to the consecration of this hour unless we fearlessly and clearly into this contradiction
Eye look. And if
so serious questions for us in
push reason, we are only staying true to the German way. Here in the country the school boy already celebrates the national festival
with popping fireworks and loud cheers. The German New York from a
feels different. As recently moved from association across the country
to work against
briefly explain how the German youth
I desert that
Our holiday, I replied, is the Emperor's birthday and from the happy years of my youth I stayed with the annual celebration
in grateful memory. In the holiday season we went to the decorated school; Songs rang out and, in a simple way, Teacher's speech led us to
Past. No loud boobs and no hollow boasting: a far-sighted historical speech brought the meaning of the day to our souls, and the impressions
Hours stuck for life. Yes, this is how it should be where Germans stay together to celebrate national days of honor, there it is important to hold onto the spirit of the hour in serious words, the connection with the past of such
to secure and, above all, to clarify the rights with which the ceremony demands our heart and soul.
With what right, the question stands before us today, can we celebrate the emperor's birthday here in the midst of a people who are republican in every fiber of their being?
The republic, ment.
who we live
by no means
do not live
of harm and danger is known to everyone; but no nagging and no-seeker can so completely misunderstand the spirit of the country that he would like to hope for the damage to be healed from a destruction of the republican form of government. On the contrary, anyone who understands America knows that the damage to its democracy
just lying there
the democratic spirit does not
is carried out vigorously and not consistently enough; not through less, but through more democracy they must be eliminated. The political republic was never before.
so firmly established, never before so unanimously recognized. One may develop, a political aristocrat
social aristocracy kracy is one
Impossibility in America; and each of us monarchy would be the end of America.
feels it deeply: the
Carelessness and overzealousness are now rushing from here - the Americans believe in the republic
therefore only loyal
he everywhere on earth
to the monarchy fought and destroyed. The American he is supposed to believe is a priest of democracy
carry the political pagans. Anyone who is a republican must see in every monarchist his political opponent; who the
Despise bondage everywhere.
Americans must appreciate and appreciate the German people with ardent conviction
the German form of government
Do they want to be right-wing Americans who celebrate the republican birthday? America and monarchical Germany have an unbridgeable gap. How often do we all have such folly how often has lack of understanding listened to us rumbling and yet, such talk has only scolded us Germans. rarely misled. Not only was our own mind contradicting it, but we also soon saw that the best and most mature Americans fight the narrow-mindedness, even the absurdity, of such. Emperor
Looking through history.
The one who looks deeper knows
in fact, that there is no point in asking about the best form of government in general. Republic and monarchy are not logical, but historical
pointless to argue whether it is poetry or or higher art; the divine comedy cannot be painted, the Sistine Madonna can
It would be
not to be sealed; each wants its own form of expression. That Americanism is certainly only possible in the republic
the slightest form that the monarchical Germanship, opposition to that this one who will find without prejudice, demands. Yes, check
being allowed to live out does not mean
between America and Germany does not just not represent a contradiction, but rather emerges from a profound similarity in essence between the two nations. external difference
That Germany and things related
the United States is much like that
show, is usually recognized, but the
Traits are too often shown on the surface. Soon it is emphasized that both are a federation with an artificial equilibrium of federal and state
social addiction. put
Soon the emphasis will be placed on brilliant economic development; like both in the national powers.
a few decades
Forces learn how their cities are racing forward, how industry is tirelessly conquering the world market. Essentials
thinks otherwise to me:
Germany and the
United States can understand each other well, it is based not on the similarity of external experience, but on
Kindred spirits: they both have a moral one in common, which may not return anywhere in such a uniform way. But there we will speak of moral idealism, where deeper
life is filled with the desire not to enjoy but to fulfill tasks where the soul of the people does not chase the random goals of benefit, but only seeks the one goal of being true to itself.
Sense of that Puritanism that
found refuge on the shores of New England and there grew to become American. To be sure, New England is today only a small part of the mighty confederation of states, but
Streamed into the New World, found that puritanic colonist spirit as given, to which it unconsciously adapted itself. Moral idealism has given this world empire meaning and strength and unity; only from here is America, with all its foundations, the millions
Millions later in the
to really understand character traits. the deepest sense of Germanness.
But that is precisely the way it is, has a hundred before today
Years of the most German thinker, Fichte, the German soul want to be true to itself, the whole life of the
Fulfilling the nation with its own task, that is the moral will in which Germanness and Americanism meet in the deepest essential affinity, and as long as these fundamentally
If there is agreement, there can be no question of an internal conflict between the two peoples. But it is precisely from this inner unanimity that external differences arise. The development and the fate of both peoples were at first so completely unequal and unequal tasks were before them. Precisely because they were filled with a common desire, the whole nationality additional
to penetrate with the most own task, precisely because of this, the difference in the task had to become completely different.
Lead forms. America grew out of free brought together by the desire for freedom of conscience and personal independence; From all the peoples of the old world, the most independent broke away in order to live out themselves on new ground.Their nationality was thus held together by the enthusiasm for an ideal community in which everyone could freely achieve the highest degree of his personal achievement. There was something new to say about the state
to create that should enable the richest development of the personality. The German people, on the other hand, since it was his
became aware, had an inheritance to cultivate. What they had in common was the wonderful peculiarity of the German spirit, as it has been brought to bear over the millennia. The German way of speaking spoke of family life and community spirit, of law and economy, of music and poetry, of knowledge and art, of war and play, of religion and globalism. It was to leave a delicious tone of its own in purity and abundance, that was the obligation itself
for the German soul.
What binds American nationality is thus the common ideal of the future, what actually binds German nationality is the common past. The goal for the American is the fullest development of the personality; the nation as a whole is there for the sake of the individual. Aim-
The point for Germans is the preservation of the people as a whole; the individual have to subordinate themselves to the whole. And with that everything else is given. If the nation is there for the sake of personalities, then the most important virtue is justice; but if the individual is there for the sake of the nation,
World closed and lived
Millions rushed the
there one in that belief in that
Self worth of personality; Millions left their German homeland and believed in the people's self-worth
loyal mind far beyond
But it follows from this difference that each of the two peoples has its head in
must find a special way.
Is the purpose of the nation in
Tip of the
Popular task itself necessarily given
by choice then in the
the president draws
all his strength from the millions of individual personalities. But if the meaning of the nation lies in the traditional totality, then
the head determined by the historical tradition high above all controversy and conflict of will of the individual, the monarchical form is then the only possible expression;
the national task: the emperor draws his best strength from independence from the will of the individual. It is precisely through this struggle that the imperial crown becomes a symbol
and each individual gains his or her own special relationship with the outstanding symbol. The aristocracy, the officialdom, the title and order system, the state conditionality of all Bedes unified whole,
is only an expression of this diverse dependency the Republic of America is better than
To say that
The German monarchy, or vice versa, is just as foolish as if we wanted to argue whether the fins of the fish are better than the wings of the birds; both are necessary
entire immutable way of life.
Enthusiasm for President Roosevelt wanted to propose the amendment of the constitution and the incomparably venerated leader as
To crown king who would be
at the soul of the
People; the lifeblood of the nation would be destroyed if and if such a madness were even advised. foolish unhistorical
thinking enlightenment the German Reich and it would enforce ours
Unanimously electing German emperors as lifelong president would apparently not limit his power and importance. In truth, however, everything would have crumbled and crumbled: what was a symbol of the whole would be for
Act of will
Germanness would be abolished.
who as an American citizen
An enthusiastic republican is and should be, so if he has kept the Germans dear, he must go to him with all his soul
Believe in this sacred value of the German imperial crown. Looking for an inner contradiction in terms of a double feeling only means those who in the New World think historically immature. of the German homeland has not died completely, yes, memory
Believes world tasks of the two glorious nations,
From the bottom of my heart I wish that the leader of America should forever be cast off the ballot of even the least of them
is co-elected and the leader of Germany ascends the throne independently of the will of even the highest. And if the
Appreciation day has come
on which the German nation feels this
When the emperor's birthday is here, then no German should be most vividly aware of the emperor's symbol relieved of all quarreling
the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans let themselves be confused by thoughtless Republican scruples. To appreciate and venerate the German Empire in its immortal values means to express that political maturity between
which America should demand from each of its citizens. Yes, with a calm conscience and pride we can all join in the blessings for the ancestral German emperor and king in the heart of the most powerful democracy.
But we still
Emperor is joined by an emperor.
Love Germany, feel to the pride in the mighty
exulting joy over the only one
Kaiser, we said, is basically standing out
but more lively
Happiness can be felt, though
must it as to the carrier
the world history of the imperial symbol chose a spirit of such rare power and such outstanding ability. And yet we have to say again:
that he had such exquisite gifts
that in all his will and ability he so genuinely represents the meaning of German nationality in himself. That alone exalts the personality of a monarch that he has the powers that are in his
to come to life through his own volition. We celebrate the German Kaiser not only as the chance bearer of the crown and not only as the power of princely office
but above all
and the empire.
Personality in which the glorious inheritance of the German is so fully valid
Only through such
filling, the meaning of the imperial dignity becomes truly convincing. But it would not be worthy of our celebration if we wanted to indulge in enthusiasm without checking whether not
doubts and fears also stir in many a soul. The whole meaning of the empire lay for us in the fact that the people's spirit, which had become good, is sensualized by the ruler: can we be mistaken about the fact that it is precisely there that doubts arise in many cases? We hear and read again and again, even where an attitude loyal to the emperor is firmly rooted in the fact that some of his inclinations and impulses contradict German traditions or are alien to the German character. What about that in truth? Anyone who, like all of us in a foreign country, looks at things from a long distance is in the best position to make an impartial judgment
in the daily crowd the yardstick; But whoever looks across from a distance can undeterred to develop a view of the whole.
even in the middle
stands, easily loses
of the emperor against
of the people?
face this and that objection.
the loudest it is repeatedly said that new paths, alien to the German, are being turned
Emperor in when he was the
Distracted the nation's gaze
Had the Germans not farmed on their soil for a long time, the satisfied country for years shielded the enemy and bordered on the wide sea from everyone.
Adventures carefully kept away? Should German strength be wasted in endless plans and un-German ventures? Should Germany be in the world power frenzy
the land of
be slowly crumbling and falling apart? admittedly to anyone who pursued the economic counter-speech pushing away from the nation. The population grew too fast
Thinkers and poets too
the barren soil
further through agriculture Germany's population increase demanded the
with the countries of the world.
but so the land must send its over all seas
To feed people his goods the nation be ready to protect their trade:
necessary from the new becoming And all that is only half the truth; and grow. yes, it is the shy and almost embarrassed explanation in the mouth of the navy so arises
want to excuse the change of the nation. Rather, it is that there is nothing to excuse
at all im
Just have to
the look does not look at
Remembering the past, of course, only finds Germany's lake. But who the German wrestling and chariot
it is certain that for centuries since the earliest German history the battle of the ships has set in again and again, the power on the sea again and again
pursued all times,
the German people in their longing always to the waves
At the time of the Great Migration and earlier daring sea expeditions, Germanic tribes victoriously led against new fleets, and Charlemagne always sends familiar ones.
the thirteenth century begins the German Hansa, that Nordic of the mighty development of the city league; to protect his overseas work powerfully
so directs the gaze back, overlooks how it was only the hardship of the time that later narrowed down German endeavors and shattered its maritime power. To renew the great days of German seafaring, Germany again
true, true to the German people
right to preserve the symbolic meaning of its own and thus realize the empire. The empire is supposed to embody the will of the German national spirit; and that will was
only through coercion, not through our own choice of the local ones, have tied us up for that very reason. Open your eyes, today's historians of German naval power, that Germany did win many proud victories in the country during the days of the lack of naval power, but only too often those
Successes of his victories fell to the others, because in world history only he reaped the fruits, the last one
Possessed sea power. But the folk spirit not only has the will to power; Sensing and thinking, feeling and longing is linked to willing: the empire should also express the spirit and heart and conscience of the whole people. Here, too, the Schelter speech is so often loud in the New World: the emperor is backward; he resisted the new paths which the genius of the people was pursuing in art and science
A new, promising idealism began to stir worldview and the arts; the
wanted to step. in the
But the Kaiser wanted to get up
the point of view
Progress don't know anything:
of what has just been overcome.
he is standing
But also there
it is the superficiality that seeks blame; the same ones who complain when the prince pushes for new paths in world politics, grumble that he is sticking to the old paths in art. Of course, we recognized that politics, which is the future
seeks, very well the inheritance of the Germans and precisely thereby fulfills the noble task of the empire. And so we must welcome it that even in the realms of the spirit the emperor stands up for what has become and has been secured and often intervenes in an inhibiting manner when the urge for the new and untried is reached. The imperial tents
Holding on to the mind
must not be pitched there, are to be fought for.
the outpost battles
The forward movement in science and art must always come from the individual; Show direction, talents have to lead the march, the best and most talented have to help, but as long as there is still
it will remain the deed of the individual.
is, the people can take possession and move up as a whole. Emperor himself looking for the way to new goals or pushing forward on bold new paths with the most daring, he would thereby only become such an individual who may be sometimes right, sometimes wrong, who then maybe also
the new area opened up and won
be a good scholar or artist
Would be emperor
because the emperor
not a single one
like, but a real one of that sense is in
not representative of his personal
gung, but representative of the unified historical In its taste and judgment the Volkstum is supposed to be. Realize the whole history of the people, and so the true imperial spirit must necessarily have an inhibiting effect on the untried innovations, must first resist if the unheard of wants to push the familiar aside, even if that
dares to venture out with fresh victorious power. To be emperor means to be a protector for what has been achieved; To give up the old in order to dare to win something that is still uncertain is often much more tempting
it may, just not an emperor, who too
in the realm of the spirit about one
the individual stands,
Remain symbol of national wholeness. Don't we all have a haunting example
Your neighboring city of St. Louis experienced when we went to the World's Fair:
made a pilgrimage? German builders had planned a splendid house that transformed Germany's new art into a bold one
The emperor failed
Approval. He felt that such a newly devised work was only the work of a single champion; it was much more important to emphasize Germany's historical heritage there. Everyone complained
was as a blow against the The Kaiser left the central structure of the
imperial prohibition; it
felt new art.
And all of us who build it from the Charlottenburg Palace. seen, it will never be forgotten how the German house proudly emerges from the shiny ivory-colored palace tangle on a gentle hill like an old, venerable landmark
All the greatness and majesty of the German rose. The people were wonderfully built up there by the imperial will.
but the most idle is the malicious objection that can be heard so often here in the distance. The Kaiser, it is said again and again, does not embody the German character at all; he always wants the spotlight and applause, works towards the scenic effect and pushes himself to the fore with speech and action.
but the German
and keep quiet and create for the sake of the cause. Many of the most serious in the New World speak so; and if their rebuke were justified, then any counter-speech would in fact have to fall silent, for that was the deepest sense of it for us
Imperial dignity that the German people's soul should come to the clearest expression in the bearer, the crown. The charge is
but completely unjustified, because he creates a counterpart and a people only through the fact that the real
sentence between emperor
of today compared to an unreal folk that will be its main features from long past decades, borrowed. Today's German people as a whole have all the quays, he
of the figure of the emperor shimmer, and of
there can be no speech in a contradiction
This and that,
Germany of the past is alive, the new transformation and the new splendor are strange and perhaps unpleasant: he loved the quiet, winding streets and is now in control
the poets and thinkers revered the glories of the new youth
of the automobile,
Industry marveled at.
to be amazed in every city one of its everywhere
only discovered a scaled-down Chicago that will not easily gain the right standard. Yes, Germany has completely transformed itself under the new wealth; Anyone who does not live there all the time, but only visits their old home from year to year, feels it clearly. Much unsightly slag, but the change itself was necessary.
with the new way of life
a new spirit
or rather, a new mood has come over the population. This, too, may be clearer to outsiders
the one who stands in the middle. It is difficult to find a uniform name for this new attitude towards life, and historical comparisons are certainly always inadequate, and yet perhaps the most essential part is echoed when I fearlessly say: the German people are in rococo
we think of the time when in
the art of
as it were dissolved
the strict, conflicting demands of the structure on pleasure in the independently appearing ornamentation
applies to the rococo frame of the picture, applies to the frame of the whole of life. Something playful
and decorative, something frivolous and coquettish, something contrary to nature and theatrical is back in the mood of existence. Shepherd games and cave works are not the outward forms of today; but internally they are not absent. The wonders-
Men's velvet vests, women's cigarettes, the easy game of kissing the hand and the hustle and bustle of cabaret, frivolous
not the pure love of life of the
Rococo mood. The personality cult flourishes
the nerdism and title addiction to his area; the
Luxury celebrates its festivals and, in its wake, the dowry hunt. The arts and crafts are back to their rococo height with beautiful vessels and jewels and furniture; picturesque ways of life always bring new pleasures and surprises. History already brings us its memoirs and science its handbooks and collected works as it was then. That is not the mood of the individual, that is the mood of young Germany; and if the emperor is to truly realize the feeling of his people, then he must not want to imitate the simple simplicity of his grandfather, but must move to Kiel and Corfu and in lavish festivals and picturesque parades, in the unveiling of monuments and laying the foundation stones, in parade speeches and theatrical splendor Rococo mood of the whole people
end of expression.
The German Volksgeist
This festive mood of the nation that has become rich is not threatened, because time and again it turns out that the people are not willing to go through all their games with the tough, strict ones
To forget about work.
Night to be turned into day, there is always the new sober effect Germany with the new morning
in spite of
gorgeous at work, and business and law
it strides briskly with it
embodied in it, in un-
tiring work, the emperor the noblest instincts of the people
the iron strength,
to carry an enormous burden of his duties. But no less important for the nation
the emperor's soul never
seriously drowned out, the easy game has never influenced moral conscience and moral rigor. Just in it
Rococo mood by far opposed to it; the game became enough
the humid folk spirit does not have
Layers of the people.
the imperial family remained a symbol of the pure, never touched again
of a hint of suspicion, and
We lived it as the Emperor and Crown Prince took care with purifying severity that there was no moral stain in the surroundings
Thrones defiled. In this moral rigor and purity, immeasurable happiness for the German people. It is precisely because of this that he becomes the custodian of the deepest German treasures, the bearer of the German Gedes Kaiser in the midst of an easy time
So we have the American complainers and serious opponents of the emperor quiet
and again and again we recognized
and the Missim Kaiser all those
In truth, they embody themselves and flushes that thank the sacred inheritance of feelings, but that alone is his real German nationality. Truly over the dispute that elevates him to duty, that alone parties. The genius of the German people is in their will
and who the German people
hesitate to join in enthusiastically here in the heart of the proud republic: long live the German Kaiser!
Exchange of professors. At
On board the "Kaiserin Auguste Viktoria" Atlantic Ocean, June 20, 1908.
Friend home with
- * Dear exchange considerations
lies next to me and admonishes me to answer, while I rest comfortably in the armchair on the Kaiserdeck and look out over the blue tide that has reached your letter and that flickers in the sunshine. shortly before I and in the restlessness of Boston I left,
- the Harvard holidays begin - semester days I couldn't think of a reply.
June the wonderful
After the ocean voyage, I am happy to return to your correspondence in order to add a few counter-considerations to your considerations. I am almost afraid that she is still
like to spin out longer than your epistle, because here in the middle of the ocean there is no time and no rush.
There is nothing more delicious than this happy detachment, this contemplative life between the laughing
Sea and the blue summer sky,
easily played around
And the conviviality of happy fellow travelers. more delicious than on the "Auguste Viktoria"
of which is
May others who are in too much of a hurry to tell "Germany" or the "Kaiser" over the world
the most beautiful of all ships!
have on the
hunting the sea, I praise the "Kaiserin" and her proud sister ship the "Amerika": even in winter storms they carried me calmly through the peaks of waves. But now in June there is no wave to be seen. Like from the terrace of a beach castle
ring from the palm garden of the gypsy chapel, in the distance gushing in
a few whales up their stream of water, and only here and there the crease of a cordless warns that we are still in contact with the new world and soon again with the old world on our magnificent island of ships.
Thoughts like to move over and over again during the hour; the little discrepancies of yesterday In such
and the day before yesterday, tomorrow are there
then comes over
tomorrow and beyond
I will forget the broad lines of the between Europe and America
so on that
but with grave satisfaction how different my old homeland and my new homeland understand each other today than when I first crossed the ocean in the days of the Chicago World's Fair. Yes it
If you, dear friend, find only loose ridicule in your soul for some of these communication paths and some of the newer means of exchange, I can confidently say that the good and the right and the sensible far outweighed the good and that great movements should not be judged on the basis of small mistakes. But if you finally kindly invite me to bear the bulk of the responsibility, I will ask first
not at all,
whether my sins of mediation
but I like to wear
were really so bad, responsibility there too
where a scrutinizing judge And if you are now particularly over
discussed professors exchange, who said yes
I am relieving the far too much but only a thread in the
collect amusing colleague jokes, I like to laugh along with you and claim that you are wrong. But as I said, I do not have to apologize, and I also like to leave the criticism to the others, and only one thing interests me is the basic direction understandable,
and what can and must be done to come closer to us?
When I look back, I clearly see the beginning of these political-academic relationships. Chance wants
Days exactly a decade came. In June 1898 I wrote
the German ambassador von Holleben, which quickly turns into a never-interrupted one
The basic idea of my suggestions was, however, and the German American government with the only policy contact and it was clearly ahead of American politics.
By then the German government had
watch that after
Spanish wars would establish a vast world of the United States with political development and the immense internal forces of the young nation
It was in Germany's turn to develop. such an interest in gaining closest contact with the American nation and the two aspiring in
by external impossible
Alliance contracts, but rather to bind to one another through internal volitional relationships. But that was clear to me, and I saw in it
and best forces
smallest parts through politics and the official government representatives. And that was true for them
much livelier than today.
rika developed his best powers
The real am-
in the life of the universities,
schools are at the same time a social unification of the leading spirits of the country. I really wanted German politics too
To get in touch with the best and enduring America, a contact between the German government and the American universities was bound to take place.
With the finest
and the safest tact and
The German ambassador responded to this suggestion with tireless energy. The following winter he was the honored guest under the old elms of Harvard University for a week and now became the focus of festivities that marked a whole new relationship between the two
The leader of the American
Lebens, the President of Harvard University, Charles Eliot, willingly this
new appearance in the academic field
The first venture in Cambridge-Boston was so successful, I went to Chicago to meet the President
Chicago University to designate the unforgettable Harper to join the movement, since Chicago University is equally responsible for the leadership of the American West.
claimed, like Harvard, those of the East.
In the spring
followed Herr von Holleben
Invitation; the university even created a German guest. The ambassador spoke to thousands of students in the auditorium, and in impressive speeches it was also a holiday for in the spiritual stronghold of the West
then later the German ambassador in grateful movement, recognition of these efforts to a certain extent the highest and rarest medal in the country, the honorary doctoral hat of als
Outwardly, a small secondary movement was linked to this. Several Harvard professors who taught German language and literature there had long expressed the wish that Harvard, rich in collections and museums, should also include a collection of plaster casts of German works of art in the interests of Germanic teaching. I myself, who do not have to teach German but psychology at Harvard, stood quite far from this movement. My kind colleague Professor Francke was the intellectual originator. At first the movement was unsuccessful
But when the German ambassador visited us, he called the leading Germans from Boston together, and under
lively participation of the ambassador
became the whole plan
Berlin, how much the implementation of this plan was conditioned by the assistance of the German government, and then
Harvard honored Germanness by awarding the ambassador an honorary doctorate, the generous decision matured in the Kaiser, also reinforced by Hermann Grimm, in return from Harvard University
as complete as possible
Exchange of professors
German art monuments in
To give a cast.
then Prince Heinrich the land of the stars and sought
As a loading
to promote more and more favorable, creative two nations, then he became the
which move quickly
Bringer of the proud imperial gift. In my study, in which the professors told the ambassador three years earlier
Brother of the emperor with
for a Germanic
Speech to the President of the University and the illustrations of the works of art,
The deed of gift should form the basis of the first Germanic museum abroad. Donations from other sources soon followed in abundance, and the result was a collection that, like few others, offers a vivid picture of German sculpture from earlier times in a foreign country. from now on
I look at those first years of the political-academic
back, they still appear to me today as years of work, compared to which the further development of the
Movement tedious last
Years only meant smooth and easy continuation.
Obstacles that faced at that time, yes from
the difficulties with which prejudices, misunderstandings and errors can be eliminated and emotional inhibitions
were squirming, making those in
the happy era of professors
For five years it was only a matter of sowing; the exchange of professors already takes place at the beginning of the harvest. As a matter of fact, after the prince's visit turned out to be a brilliant success and the leading American universities had acquired their secure position in international relations, new and new forms of intercourse were bound to arise of their own accord; and that with the exchange
Harvest also some weeds that have grown up, there will be no damage. At first it resulted in constant wonder. Naturally,
different interrelationships made sense, and more and more universities were ambitiously imitating the movement. Soon the vigorously advancing Columbia University closed in
in another way the universities of Pennsylvania, Illinois, or Wisconsin, and always new plans outbid each other. The new messenger then led with great skill
Freiherr Speck von Sternburg, the movement continued, and, as I had hoped and strived for from the beginning, gradually the German university
of the empire,
Structure a. The year after, I was already drafting the plans for the great inter-
in this world political
the prince visit national
St. Scholars' Congress for the world exhibition for the first time a whole host of the most outstanding
should lead European researchers across the ocean. Most of the German scholars, to whom I personally brought the invitation in the following summer, joined the pilgrimage to the city of St. Ludwig, and whoever wants to measure, much of the stimulation and the intellectual exchange and the national connection from this incomparable congress-
the way back from the
teaching congress our guests, with men like Harnack, Ostwald, Lamprecht, etc. in their midst, who stayed at Harvard, were
the decisive ones
of the official
the to the
Professors' exchange leading
Contact with Althoff, the far-sighted master in the Ministry of Culture. And Columbia University soon followed on Harvard's trail. ten, in steady
Let me, dear colleague, dwell a little while on this exchange of professors, which is the main part of your letter.
appears confused; see
from the parties hatred and favor
we too like him
who weighs things dispassionately. I do not deny that it was precisely for this form of relationship that I myself initially had certain reservations, the justification of which the future will prove.
But while over lets
Form, in fact, basic ideas argue fruitfully and vc «-
seems to me that
to a great extent
healthiest and strongest and most promising nations in the world through their most valuable cultural institutions, the universities, in lively contact and thus in constant involvement
Exchange of professors
to keep. You see, of course, dear friend, that we both look at the whole question from very different points of view. For you it is exclusively a university
measure whether the German universities or the American universities derive more profit from it, whether on both sides of the academy
Mixing lessons at all takes advantage of it, and frankly, all of this is completely indifferent. Academic
not as much
that now im
next winter the geographer of Berlin, Professor Penck, in America, and the geographer of Harvard, Professor Davis, in
The total yield of geographical knowledge in the entire student body here and there would probably be no less if both of them were to teach Germany.
But that’s what it’s about staying home. just in the last row. In the first place it is rather a matter of the fact that in our promisingly turbulent times the universities should not again stand apart from the great cultural tasks, but rather have to play their part in strengthening the awareness of national interrelationships. In my opinion, it is only in this sense that criticism can be exercised and modeled on the individual. peaceful
To allow unimportant questions as to whether or not the other country wins more, I could not doubt, by the way, that the American university would make less profit
the complaint on the German side is therefore certainly in place. The ratios in wider circles
than the German,
are of course unknown, are namely in such a way that the visiting American professor in Germany can easily find a large college
will bring about, the visiting German professor in America, on the other hand, even if he were the most brilliant, can only work on a small group of students; The fundamental difference is therefore only of little use to the American university as a teaching institution.
Years of study.
as is well known
Semester credited in which some colleges are taken; whether the student actually attends the college is a matter of concern
the state exams
independently. In America, on the other hand, there is a different principle. Only those semesters will be considered by the student in which he has one
of the lectures in principle
The only thing that can be said of course is that he passed an exam. Consequently
American semesters with a written
Examination over the whole college. In the choice of colleges, however, the American student is also completely free.
Now, as soon as he has voted, he has to work hard. The number of colleges that he has to attend successfully in this sense in order to have the year counted towards the final degree are so large that he completely lacks the time and energy to attend other colleges as well, for which he is eligible
unwilling to exist
now the Harvard professor in Berlin, in accordance with the contract, in English and the German professor in Harvard in German. What's the effect? The English college on the well-known
Berlin University can easily be visited by anyone who has even the most superficial knowledge of English,
only the third part of what some students hear becomes one
linguistically understands. Yes, it will be a very welcome opportunity
Get used to it and thus gain language skills, even if the course rushes past only half-understood. So it was natural that Harvard professors like English too
Peabody or Schofield, several hundred students gathered around them. On the American side, however, a completely different success must come about. Only the few students can attend the German-speaking college at Harvard who really have a command of the German language to such an extent that they are able to pass an examination on the content of the German college; the
can of course only a handful
Professor Kühnemann had the best visit with his class on classical German literature; and yet even that was only occupied by twenty students. The English-spoken Harvard colleges are generally not small as I read
are the conditions for German literature,
Winter before about four hundred men. This clearly foreseeable difficulty in finding American students for the German visitor was the real reason for my initial hesitation on the exchange question, and yet I believe that this outwardly limited benefit
not a decisive obstacle for the American university
First of all, it can be circumvented externally in some ways. For example, contrary to its usual practice, the Harvard Faculty has allowed the German guests to hold one-hour lectures in the halls of the university in front of an unlimited audience. There are of course only a few students, but hundreds, especially women, of all classes flocked to be Giemen about the new German art or Kühnemann for the inner fruitfulness of the exchange
about the German
and who that
to hear the present speak; Movement not in the academic, but rather
Seeing far national, must take pleasure in it. Beyond the boundaries of the university, the German lecturer can also take part in German associations and German-speaking audiences
toria of other cities work.
had no German
Feeling that he lacked the opportunity to serve the German cause. And even if only the academic comes into consideration, an exchange professor would have to be returned home
but not a real scholar who does not have the intense effect on a few real students of the superficial of the yes
Mass effect itself
Another way of overcoming the difficulty seemed to be offered by asking the guest to give him
speak the language of the hosts.
hit Columbia University.
Professor Leonhardt from Breslau
That is the way that last year spoke
German law and Professor Hadley in German about
I think that's the less fortunate way out. For the vast majority, it must be said that they cannot possibly do their best in the first year of teaching a foreign language, and an academic teacher who does not give his best in every lesson is not doing his job. But it will
limited to a few who teach a foreign language from the start, the choice becomes a random result. Above all, however, such instruction in the host's language loses too much of the national nuance. With
then subordinates himself almost indiscriminately, if he really masters it, into the other faculty. It is no accident that the scholar, Columbia in the next language
in order to speak German there, with a political goal in mind, will prefer the foreign-language Harvard route. And yet the short period of experience has clearly shown that it is akadeWinter to Berlin
born in the Palatinate
Ultimately, the particular form is not as important as the personality that realizes the idea of exchange.
the indisputable fact that it has so far succeeded
how to send out men over there who have earned respect and sympathy not only for themselves but for the entire foreign culture they represented among colleagues and students and far beyond. The friendly ones
Relations of the American guests to the Emperor's court and the hundredfold relationships of the German guests to the entire German-American community of the United States gave this game its characteristic extra-academic background. But, dear friend, let me emphasize again and again that it is not only wrong to view exchange professorships from the teaching point of view rather than from the national point of view, but
so that there is above all wrong exchange aids
more under no
this academic teacher-
Thread in the fabric, more
equals maybe know
like most other colleagues in Germany Harvard exchange with Germany, which then
The Columbia Exchange followed a year later, which was nothing new to Harvard, just an extension of the already
previously introduced exchange with France. And it is precisely in this older Franco-American exchange that the difficulties of co-management have been overcome. The Harvardder in France the same conditions as in
He also goes to real semester there the winter in the Sorbonne and the
French scholars, on the other hand, who, for the reasons described, could not expect a wide student audience at Harvard,
only comes the one he keeps in
for a series of about a dozen lectures, the auditorium of the university in front of a mixed audience, which are heavily attended by the professors themselves.
It did not seem inconceivable to me that Germany too would later adopt such a form, because the form must change
The experiences and the changing conditions. Any solidification of the form would the
and the essential
pathic touch of cultures.
In addition to the academic exchange, the efforts of the various Germanic societies in America, the German poets, stand with no less right
Men of science and lecture tours
Ludwig Fulda’s speech was a real success, and next winter we’ll welcome Carl Hauptmann. And I wonder which German guest has achieved the greatest triumphs and sympathy for in the last ten years
Germanness did the richest service, I have no doubt that it was Karl Muck, the conductor of the Royal Opera in Berlin, who, on leave for two winters, did that
Conducted the Boston Symphony Orchestra and visited the leading cities with this first band in the country. Never before have a German visitor received such an ovation.
brought. And next to the best of Germanness with
this successful endeavor that
best American in touch
bring cultures of national peculiarities equal to one another to teach one another to understand, it now proliferates from immature attempts at dilettante who are without understanding for the
Peculiarities of the peoples. And all too often they only poorly conceal the vanity of incompetent nerds, or the jealousy of marginalized groups, or the naked lust for profit,
the German-American friendship
It has long since become a lucrative item. hardly that not actually a week, in any far away
prospective plan for mutual relations to me Soon there will be new clubs, soon new magazines, approaching. now commissions to be sent out, now festivals, must become, now social, now political actions.
Friend, that I am often scolded here and there because I even
new plans for the friendship of peoples set into the world. Believe me, three-quarters of my work in this field consists merely of thwarting plans that were deliberately crafted, suppressing suggestions that might have sprung from the best will but ultimately caused harm, and discouraging undertakings that should
without knowledge of the circumstances
The efforts that will now lead to a major German art exhibition in New York and later in Boston and Chicago next winter stand out brilliantly. The preponderance of French art influence on art-loving young America is a cultural injustice to the German nation.
of works of art from France
Even today, imports are more than ten times as much
There are often great opportunities. Finally, that too will now be made good. missed and the German people should look with full confidence on the New York art patron Reisinger, the German one from Germany.
Government, with the finest understanding of the state of affairs, granted complete freedom for the great exhibition
Exchange of professors.
From Bode and Kampf
supports Reisinger in
and from Marr
magnificent, newly built grand piano in New York create an exhibition,
of the Metropolitan Museum which long lost territory for the
And there too
Gedanke will soon also be used, because from the very beginning Reisinger planned to follow the German exhibition in America with a worthy American painting exhibition in Germany. When I praised the new American art with warm joy four years ago in my work "The Americans", I only encountered skepticism at home. Art has become
hardly changed, but the German judgment definitely: international questions, dear friend, you just have to
since then in
Hopefully it will
Art movement then too
benefit the Germanic Museum in Cambridge, which started so proudly with the imperial gift and yet cannot really make progress because the small, poor hall is crammed full and there is a lack of funds for the necessary new museum building. Professor Francke's tireless appeals have not met with any response. A million marks would be indispensable, but while this sum is otherwise easily obtained for the Harvard building, American generosity fails here. The Anglo-Americans think that this is a matter for the Germans, the German-Americans have no real confidence in the stocky English Boston and would probably prefer to see such a museum at German-American headquarters, and some were even afraid that a large donation for Such a purely German work could raise doubts as to the authenticity of his Americanism; In short, it would be very much in place if a piece of exchange were to take place there too and helpful German thousand-mark bills were exchanged in dollars for the new museum building. Let me add that in the academic field, too, I do not believe that the exchange of teachers has to be the last word. Basically, I think student exchanges are more important. This is a big chapter, and I am delighted that the number of young Germans
which is too steady
coming to America's leading universities is increasing. There is also much more important
It is precisely in this area that Germany has no particular interest in meeting new institutions and promoting new movements, because the influx of American students has been there for more than half a year. But it is precisely then that the surface can be very deceptive, and if Germany is not on guard is
hundred in progress
serious national cultural damage cannot be avoided. Folly when this or that thinks that Germany
have no interest in foreigners joining his
schools flock, yes that foreigners easily for natives
the good ones
take away, or
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