In neisd who buys honor cords graduation

From German America

Table of contents:
Foreword VI
I. The German-Americans and the Empire 1
II. Exchange of professors 16
III. Germany and world peace 34
IV. Cosmopolitanism in Science 39
V. Germanness and temperance 45
VI. The German author and the American author protection 66
VII. The American School and the German Spirit ... 86
VIII. Language Hopes in the New World 104
IX. Schiller and the German-Americans 115
X. The German Weltanschauung 125
XI. Books and magazines 146
XII. Newspaper Inventions 159
XIII. American and German Science 168
XIV. A German university based on the American model. 176
XV. The International Congress of Scholars 196
XVI. The Study of Women in America 211
XVII. Fichte and the German-Americans 223
XVIII. The Prince's Journey 230
XIX. Friedrich Wilhelm Holls 238
Register 243

Citation preview

Of the

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Third edition,

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Making the situation clear to the German people is certainly not an easy one, and Prof. Munsterberg succeeded in doing this more perfectly than probably no one else would have done and no one else will.

pver attempt to our character and ours

Gazette Telegraph.

From German America

Of

HUGO MÜNSTERBERG Professor

at Harvard

BERLIN

-

university

1909

Ernst Siegfried Mittler and Son, Königliche Hofbuchhandlung Kochstrasse

68—71

the law of June 19, 1901 and the law of translation are reserved.

All rights off

IN MEMORY OF

CARL SCHURZ

^41585

Preface is

Of course

no

Territory,

but a problem area. In its borders, German America is concerned with the influence of German culture

America; there is also the question of the rights and duties of Americans of German descent; and finally here comes America's relationship with Germany

and consider the influence of American culture on the German people.

The common name "German America" ​​expresses this unity of problems

together and

All

so

these

like

but the importance of these questions is growing every day and yet the uncertainty in their assessment seems to be growing even faster

to grow. In my work "The Americans" I had to pass all of this. The task there was to explain the essence of pure Americanism out of itself. The relationships

America's Germanness and life and striving

the

German-Americans were hardly considered there. The belief in the cultural value of German-American relations, however, had to awaken the desire, now also this one of prejudice

to illuminate the darkened question area once more.

The new topic, of course, required a new way of treatment. When I was portraying America, I could see the material in closed

context

it acts against sentences

yourself

and impulses,

represent; in

German America there-

about the scattered and isolated, about anum moods and demands. who

If you want to get to know such an area, you should get right into

the tangle.

As I

of

instead of

then it seemed to me the safest of a uniform

Talk

and

Letters,

path

Presentation of a report

and

too loose

be,

if

collection

Discussions

there-

VI

From before.

that every single contribution belongs not only objectively to the German-American way, but also practically through it

offer,

Operations

in

this area was initiated.

living reality of questions

Things

at the

Thereby

remains the

most faithfully preserved;

the

intervene in our daily life. There could be no shortage of material for such a collection.

offer themselves as in

At

Many a hundred

times

I had in

the

last

ten years to German

American issues to speak. Of course, all of this was always only calculated for the particular hour. And since I

Now, I

a few such occasional pieces next to each other, try to trace the traces of the chance

also nowhere,

sided.

This mixes

yourself

Letters, a lot of personal information in the

especially in that and some things have to be discussed

of course,

definitely be appreciated from the point of view of the special occasion. By complementing one another, however, they can perhaps lead beyond the temporary

and

really

a

German America 10.

picture

of

the

permanent conditions

Offer.

August 1908.

Hugo Munsterberg.

in

Table of Contents.

page

Foreword I.

II.

III.

VI

The German-Americans and the German Empire

1

16

Exchange of professors

Germany and world peace

34

Cosmopolitanism in Science V. Germanness and Temperance VI. The German author and the American author protection IV.

VII. VIII.

The American school and the German spirit in

the

...

New world

Language hopes and the German-Americans

XII.

66 86

115

125

X. The German worldview

XIII.

45

104

IX. Schiller

XI.

39

Books and magazines

146

Newspaper Inventions American and German Science

159

XIV. A German university based on the American model

XV. The International Congress of Scholars XVI. Women's Studies in America XVII. Fichte and the German-Americans XVIII. The prince's journey

XIX. Friedrich Wilhelm Holls

register

168 .

176 196 211

223 230

238 243

I.

The German-Americans and the Empire. '^ Compatriots!

have me

German

From

today

in

breastfeeding

venerable

Boston

your

young vigorous old ancestral seat of the purest

Chicago called, from the Anglo-Saxons to the enormous playground of all peoples. And with a happy heart I followed your call, because at this ceremony of the

Feel German

I

lively,

how

the great flow of German immigration left Puritan Boston almost untouched, but Chicago for hundreds of thousands

become a new home by Germans

is.

Truly here

the right place to celebrate German days of honor, and I thank you happily that I have come to your German festival

is

Sharp can join you today

and once again

in

the beloved

German language is allowed to speak to Germans. Of course, when I look around this proud "Germania" hall with its flags and pictures from Germany's greatest days, especially when I see the enthusiasm that shines from your eyes, it seems to me that

if

it's not just the one here

uniform

feeling

Has

Talk to you

requirement.

A strong living one

today

merged; In greater numbers than ever you have rushed to express your loyalty to Germanness anew; you were already cheering when the German anthem greeted you. What else is needed for the speech, what other words are needed than the *) celebratory speech given on January 27, 1908 in the "Germania" in Chicago. Colonel Halle presided; Consul General Wever, the tireless champion of German intellectual culture in America, brought the toast to President Roosevelt; the President of the University of Chicago, Judson, cheered him on

Kaiser out and by

Munsterberg,

the banquet

I held the following

From German America.

Speech. 1

The German-Americans

a splendid celebratory cry, for which our souls are desperate today, the celebratory call: long live the emperor!

And

but, we wouldn't be real Germans if we really only got over the overflowing feeling today.

and thoughtlessly did not want to pay attention to the fact that we were actually faced with a strange world-historical question. Almost everyone who gathered here today for the imperial celebration

found, are American citizens and therefore political Republicans. The couple of us, who will also remain German citizens in the New World, are disappearing in the vast majority. And not just chance Republicans do you want to be, unconcerned-

about the political formation of yourself or your parents chosen.

new fatherland, the no, with the purest and

mert

Enthusiasm you believe in the Democratic Republic of the United States. Their loud applause says it again: it is the proud republican consciousness, the most meaningful and profound

force

Of their

daily

job

gives.

And

Nevertheless

want

your

Republican spirit celebrating the mighty monarch: would it be worthy of us to silently ignore such contradictions-

watch?

Would

if only ambiguity

it doesn't seem like

and blurriness such Often enough we hear it yes

opposites

in all ga; s,

unite

can?

that the spirit of

Republic is a fiery protest against the outdated monarchy. Is it true that you will be unfaithful to yourself if you

the republican

Form of government

loyalty

the

sworn

and still look at the German imperial crown with exhilaration? Verily, we will not do justice to the consecration of this hour unless we fearlessly and clearly into this contradiction

Eye look. And if

so serious questions for us in

the front

push reason, we are only staying true to the German way. Here in the country the school boy already celebrates the national festival

with popping fireworks and loud cheers. The German New York from a

feels different. As recently moved from association across the country

noise

at the

4.

July

to work against

formed,

has been

briefly explain how the German youth

I desert that

asked

patriotic

Days

and the

Kaiserreicli.

Our holiday, I replied, is the Emperor's birthday and from the happy years of my youth I stayed with the annual celebration

celebrates.

in

my hometown

in grateful memory. In the holiday season we went to the decorated school; Songs rang out and, in a simple way, Teacher's speech led us to

Past. No loud boobs and no hollow boasting: a far-sighted historical speech brought the meaning of the day to our souls, and the impressions

in

Hours stuck for life. Yes, this is how it should be where Germans stay together to celebrate national days of honor, there it is important to hold onto the spirit of the hour in serious words, the connection with the past of such

stay:

to secure and, above all, to clarify the rights with which the ceremony demands our heart and soul.

With what right, the question stands before us today, can we celebrate the emperor's birthday here in the midst of a people who are republican in every fiber of their being?

The republic, ment.

in

who we live

That our

is

by no means

do not live

more

an experiment

of harm and danger is known to everyone; but no nagging and no-seeker can so completely misunderstand the spirit of the country that he would like to hope for the damage to be healed from a destruction of the republican form of government. On the contrary, anyone who understands America knows that the damage to its democracy

public

just lying there

Where

free

the democratic spirit does not

is carried out vigorously and not consistently enough; not through less, but through more democracy they must be eliminated. The political republic was never before.

so firmly established, never before so unanimously recognized. One may develop, a political aristocrat

social aristocracy kracy is one

Impossibility in America; and each of us monarchy would be the end of America.

feels it deeply: the

Carelessness and overzealousness are now rushing from here - the Americans believe in the republic



further:

therefore only loyal

if

he everywhere on earth

Believe

to the monarchy fought and destroyed. The American he is supposed to believe is a priest of democracy



1*

The German-Americans

carry the political pagans. Anyone who is a republican must see in every monarchist his political opponent; who the

got to

Knows freedom

like

the

Despise bondage everywhere.

And

Americans must appreciate and appreciate the German people with ardent conviction

the German form of government

Do they want to be right-wing Americans who celebrate the republican birthday? America and monarchical Germany have an unbridgeable gap. How often do we all have such folly how often has lack of understanding listened to us rumbling and yet, such talk has only scolded us Germans. rarely misled. Not only was our own mind contradicting it, but we also soon saw that the best and most mature Americans fight the narrow-mindedness, even the absurdity, of such. Emperor



Looking through history.

The one who looks deeper knows

in fact, that there is no point in asking about the best form of government in general. Republic and monarchy are not logical, but historical

pointless to argue whether it is poetry or or higher art; the divine comedy cannot be painted, the Sistine Madonna can

It would be

Problems. painting

the

better ones

not to be sealed; each wants its own form of expression. That Americanism is certainly only possible in the republic

shape

the slightest form that the monarchical Germanship, opposition to that this one who will find without prejudice, demands. Yes, check

kanischen

being allowed to live out does not mean

between America and Germany does not just not represent a contradiction, but rather emerges from a profound similarity in essence between the two nations. external difference

That Germany and things related

the United States is much like that

show, is usually recognized, but the

Traits are too often shown on the surface. Soon it is emphasized that both are a federation with an artificial equilibrium of federal and state

social addiction. put

Soon the emphasis will be placed on brilliant economic development; like both in the national powers.

a few decades

a

unheard of

growth

the economy-

and the

Empire.

Forces learn how their cities are racing forward, how industry is tirelessly conquering the world market. Essentials

lighter but

thinks otherwise to me:

If

Germany and the

United States can understand each other well, it is based not on the similarity of external experience, but on

Kindred spirits: they both have a moral one in common, which may not return anywhere in such a uniform way. But there we will speak of moral idealism, where deeper

Idealism,

life is filled with the desire not to enjoy but to fulfill tasks where the soul of the people does not chase the random goals of benefit, but only seeks the one goal of being true to itself.

The

alone

was the

deepest

Sense of that Puritanism that

found refuge on the shores of New England and there grew to become American. To be sure, New England is today only a small part of the mighty confederation of states, but

Streamed into the New World, found that puritanic colonist spirit as given, to which it unconsciously adapted itself. Moral idealism has given this world empire meaning and strength and unity; only from here is America, with all its foundations, the millions

and

Millions later in the

to really understand character traits. the deepest sense of Germanness.

But that is precisely the way it is, has a hundred before today

Years of the most German thinker, Fichte, the German soul want to be true to itself, the whole life of the

stood.

Fulfilling the nation with its own task, that is the moral will in which Germanness and Americanism meet in the deepest essential affinity, and as long as these fundamentally

If there is agreement, there can be no question of an internal conflict between the two peoples. But it is precisely from this inner unanimity that external differences arise. The development and the fate of both peoples were at first so completely unequal and unequal tasks were before them. Precisely because they were filled with a common desire, the whole nationality additional

to penetrate with the most own task, precisely because of this, the difference in the task had to become completely different.

The German-Americans

Lead forms. America grew out of free brought together by the desire for freedom of conscience and personal independence; From all the peoples of the old world, the most independent broke away in order to live out themselves on new ground.Their nationality was thus held together by the enthusiasm for an ideal community in which everyone could freely achieve the highest degree of his personal achievement. There was something new to say about the state

Groups,

to create that should enable the richest development of the personality. The German people, on the other hand, since it was his

became aware, had an inheritance to cultivate. What they had in common was the wonderful peculiarity of the German spirit, as it has been brought to bear over the millennia. The German way of speaking spoke of family life and community spirit, of law and economy, of music and poetry, of knowledge and art, of war and play, of religion and globalism. It was to leave a delicious tone of its own in purity and abundance, that was the obligation itself



for the German soul.

What binds American nationality is thus the common ideal of the future, what actually binds German nationality is the common past. The goal for the American is the fullest development of the personality; the nation as a whole is there for the sake of the individual. Aim-

The point for Germans is the preservation of the people as a whole; the individual have to subordinate themselves to the whole. And with that everything else is given. If the nation is there for the sake of personalities, then the most important virtue is justice; but if the individual is there for the sake of the nation,

so

is

the highest

Virtue

World closed and lived

yourself

the loyalty,

Millions rushed the

New ones

there one in that belief in that

Self worth of personality; Millions left their German homeland and believed in the people's self-worth

loyal mind far beyond

Out of

all parts

the earth.

But it follows from this difference that each of the two peoples has its head in

self,

must find a special way.

Is the purpose of the nation in

and the

the

Empire.

individual,

so

be won;

got to

the

Tip of the

Popular task itself necessarily given

State

shape

the republican:

is

by choice then in the

the president draws

all his strength from the millions of individual personalities. But if the meaning of the nation lies in the traditional totality, then

got to

the head determined by the historical tradition high above all controversy and conflict of will of the individual, the monarchical form is then the only possible expression;

the national task: the emperor draws his best strength from independence from the will of the individual. It is precisely through this struggle that the imperial crown becomes a symbol

and each individual gains his or her own special relationship with the outstanding symbol. The aristocracy, the officialdom, the title and order system, the state conditionality of all Bedes unified whole,

interpretation then

employment, ability.

first myself

is only an expression of this diverse dependency the Republic of America is better than

To say that

The German monarchy, or vice versa, is just as foolish as if we wanted to argue whether the fins of the fish are better than the wings of the birds; both are necessary

For

the

who

entire immutable way of life.

in

the loading

Enthusiasm for President Roosevelt wanted to propose the amendment of the constitution and the incomparably venerated leader as

To crown king who would be

a traitor

at the soul of the

People; the lifeblood of the nation would be destroyed if and if such a madness were even advised. foolish unhistorical

subjugate

could

thinking enlightenment the German Reich and it would enforce ours

Unanimously electing German emperors as lifelong president would apparently not limit his power and importance. In truth, however, everything would have crumbled and crumbled: what was a symbol of the whole would be for

Act of will

the

individual

become

and

the

sense

of

Germanness would be abolished.

The German-American,

who as an American citizen

An enthusiastic republican is and should be, so if he has kept the Germans dear, he must go to him with all his soul

The German-Americans

Believe in this sacred value of the German imperial crown. Looking for an inner contradiction in terms of a double feeling only means those who in the New World think historically immature. of the German homeland has not died completely, yes, memory

who at

Believes world tasks of the two glorious nations,

the

got to

From the bottom of my heart I wish that the leader of America should forever be cast off the ballot of even the least of them

the

is co-elected and the leader of Germany ascends the throne independently of the will of even the highest. And if the

Appreciation day has come

is

on which the German nation feels this

When the emperor's birthday is here, then no German should be most vividly aware of the emperor's symbol relieved of all quarreling

the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans let themselves be confused by thoughtless Republican scruples. To appreciate and venerate the German Empire in its immortal values ​​means to express that political maturity between

which America should demand from each of its citizens. Yes, with a calm conscience and pride we can all join in the blessings for the ancestral German emperor and king in the heart of the most powerful democracy.

But we still

Feeling:

Emperor is joined by an emperor.

the

The

the

dispute

critical

Love Germany, feel to the pride in the mighty

that we

all,

richer

a

the

exulting joy over the only one

Kaiser, we said, is basically standing out

Intentions

Praise and

Rebuke.

and therefore

Around

remains

he

but more lively

Happiness can be felt, though

beyond

of

must it as to the carrier

the world history of the imperial symbol chose a spirit of such rare power and such outstanding ability. And yet we have to say again:

the best

is

Not,

that he had such exquisite gifts

united,

rather

that in all his will and ability he so genuinely represents the meaning of German nationality in himself. That alone exalts the personality of a monarch that he has the powers that are in his

to come to life through his own volition. We celebrate the German Kaiser not only as the chance bearer of the crown and not only as the power of princely office

full

symbolizes

historical

are,

Appearance,

but above all

as

the

and the empire.

Personality in which the glorious inheritance of the German is so fully valid

to expression

brings.

genius

Only through such

filling, the meaning of the imperial dignity becomes truly convincing. But it would not be worthy of our celebration if we wanted to indulge in enthusiasm without checking whether not

doubts and fears also stir in many a soul. The whole meaning of the empire lay for us in the fact that the people's spirit, which had become good, is sensualized by the ruler: can we be mistaken about the fact that it is precisely there that doubts arise in many cases? We hear and read again and again, even where an attitude loyal to the emperor is firmly rooted in the fact that some of his inclinations and impulses contradict German traditions or are alien to the German character. What about that in truth? Anyone who, like all of us in a foreign country, looks at things from a long distance is in the best position to make an impartial judgment

who

in the daily crowd the yardstick; But whoever looks across from a distance can undeterred to develop a view of the whole.

even in the middle

stands, easily loses

judge.

How

it

stands

of the emperor against

With

the

the want

supposed

of the people?

Contradiction

Let

us

face this and that objection.

the loudest it is repeatedly said that new paths, alien to the German, are being turned

Maybe

Emperor in when he was the

Fleet built

and the

he is,

Distracted the nation's gaze

Had the Germans not farmed on their soil for a long time, the satisfied country for years shielded the enemy and bordered on the wide sea from everyone.

Adventures carefully kept away? Should German strength be wasted in endless plans and un-German ventures? Should Germany be in the world power frenzy

sea ​​fish

fleet

send out,

Meanwhile

be

inherited

Fame,

the land of

be slowly crumbling and falling apart? admittedly to anyone who pursued the economic counter-speech pushing away from the nation. The population grew too fast

Thinkers and poets too

around

to

to nourish.

the barren soil

further through agriculture Germany's population increase demanded the

lO

The German-Americans

Transition to

and

Industrialized country,

with the countries of the world.

the exchange

this means

Got to

but so the land must send its over all seas

To feed people his goods the nation be ready to protect their trade:

the strenght

necessary from the new becoming And all that is only half the truth; and grow. yes, it is the shy and almost embarrassed explanation in the mouth of the navy so arises

those who

want to excuse the change of the nation. Rather, it is that there is nothing to excuse

truth

full

there because

at all im

Just have to

the look does not look at

last

last

Reasons

the

no

change

Stick yesterday.

occurred.

Who only

the

Remembering the past, of course, only finds Germany's lake. But who the German wrestling and chariot

To faint

it is certain that for centuries since the earliest German history the battle of the ships has set in again and again, the power on the sea again and again

by

pursued all times,

lures,

the German people in their longing always to the waves

At the time of the Great Migration and earlier daring sea expeditions, Germanic tribes victoriously led against new fleets, and Charlemagne always sends familiar ones.

the

the thirteenth century begins the German Hansa, that Nordic of the mighty development of the city league; to protect his overseas work powerfully

Enemies.

With

so directs the gaze back, overlooks how it was only the hardship of the time that later narrowed down German endeavors and shattered its maritime power. To renew the great days of German seafaring, Germany again

knew.

strengthen

who

just

the

true, true to the German people

be

Naval power

German inheritance

to

to lead,

means

so

right to preserve the symbolic meaning of its own and thus realize the empire. The empire is supposed to embody the will of the German national spirit; and that will was

only through coercion, not through our own choice of the local ones, have tied us up for that very reason. Open your eyes, today's historians of German naval power, that Germany did win many proud victories in the country during the days of the lack of naval power, but only too often those

and the

II

Empire.

Successes of his victories fell to the others, because in world history only he reaped the fruits, the last one

Possessed sea power. But the folk spirit not only has the will to power; Sensing and thinking, feeling and longing is linked to willing: the empire should also express the spirit and heart and conscience of the whole people. Here, too, the Schelter speech is so often loud in the New World: the emperor is backward; he resisted the new paths which the genius of the people was pursuing in art and science

A new, promising idealism began to stir worldview and the arts; the

wanted to step. in the

But the Kaiser wanted to get up

the point of view

the

Progress don't know anything:

of what has just been overcome.

he is standing

But also there

it is the superficiality that seeks blame; the same ones who complain when the prince pushes for new paths in world politics, grumble that he is sticking to the old paths in art. Of course, we recognized that politics, which is the future

the water

seeks, very well the inheritance of the Germans and precisely thereby fulfills the noble task of the empire. And so we must welcome it that even in the realms of the spirit the emperor stands up for what has become and has been secured and often intervenes in an inhibiting manner when the urge for the new and untried is reached. The imperial tents

on

Holding on to the mind

must not be pitched there, are to be fought for.

Where

the outpost battles

The forward movement in science and art must always come from the individual; Show direction, talents have to lead the march, the best and most talented have to help, but as long as there is still

movement

is

got to

it will remain the deed of the individual.

First

if

is, the people can take possession and move up as a whole. Emperor himself looking for the way to new goals or pushing forward on bold new paths with the most daring, he would thereby only become such an individual who may be sometimes right, sometimes wrong, who then maybe also

the new area opened up and won

12

The German-Americans

be a good scholar or artist

Would be emperor

he

because the emperor

Not;

not a single one

is

like, but a real one of that sense is in

not representative of his personal

gung, but representative of the unified historical In its taste and judgment the Volkstum is supposed to be. Realize the whole history of the people, and so the true imperial spirit must necessarily have an inhibiting effect on the untried innovations, must first resist if the unheard of wants to push the familiar aside, even if that

New

dares to venture out with fresh victorious power. To be emperor means to be a protector for what has been achieved; To give up the old in order to dare to win something that is still uncertain is often much more tempting

and

lighter,

and everybody

it may, just not an emperor, who too

in the realm of the spirit about one

the

dispute

the individual stands,

Remain symbol of national wholeness. Don't we all have a haunting example

here

to in

Your neighboring city of St. Louis experienced when we went to the World's Fair:

made a pilgrimage? German builders had planned a splendid house that transformed Germany's new art into a bold one

Building

should represent.

The emperor failed

the

Approval. He felt that such a newly devised work was only the work of a single champion; it was much more important to emphasize Germany's historical heritage there. Everyone complained

at

the

was as a blow against the The Kaiser left the central structure of the

imperial prohibition; it

felt new art.

And all of us who build it from the Charlottenburg Palace. seen, it will never be forgotten how the German house proudly emerges from the shiny ivory-colored palace tangle on a gentle hill like an old, venerable landmark

All the greatness and majesty of the German rose. The people were wonderfully built up there by the imperial will.

At the

but the most idle is the malicious objection that can be heard so often here in the distance. The Kaiser, it is said again and again, does not embody the German character at all; he always wants the spotlight and applause, works towards the scenic effect and pushes himself to the fore with speech and action.

and the

Empire.

reason; the

be

I3

maybe

French style,

but the German

be

and keep quiet and create for the sake of the cause. Many of the most serious in the New World speak so; and if their rebuke were justified, then any counter-speech would in fact have to fall silent, for that was the deepest sense of it for us

plain

Imperial dignity that the German people's soul should come to the clearest expression in the bearer, the crown. The charge is

but completely unjustified, because he creates a counterpart and a people only through the fact that the real

sentence between emperor

of today compared to an unreal folk that will be its main features from long past decades, borrowed. Today's German people as a whole have all the quays, he

Entities that

in

of the figure of the emperor shimmer, and of

there can be no speech in a contradiction

poor

the

imagination

whose

This and that,

be.

depressed

in

yourself

swept

Germany of the past is alive, the new transformation and the new splendor are strange and perhaps unpleasant: he loved the quiet, winding streets and is now in control

and

the poets and thinkers revered the glories of the new youth

of the automobile,

now how

sees

Industry marveled at.

enlarged

he

the

who

Weimar too

pilgrims across,

find and

instead of

to be amazed in every city one of its everywhere

only discovered a scaled-down Chicago that will not easily gain the right standard. Yes, Germany has completely transformed itself under the new wealth; Anyone who does not live there all the time, but only visits their old home from year to year, feels it clearly. Much unsightly slag, but the change itself was necessary.

especially

:

with the new way of life

is

is

for sure-

And

one

a new spirit

or rather, a new mood has come over the population. This, too, may be clearer to outsiders

the one who stands in the middle. It is difficult to find a uniform name for this new attitude towards life, and historical comparisons are certainly always inadequate, and yet perhaps the most essential part is echoed when I fearlessly say: the German people are in rococo

as

Mood.

Rococo!



we think of the time when in

^4

The German-Americans

the art of

and

frame

yourself

animated,

yourself

as it were dissolved

the strict, conflicting demands of the structure on pleasure in the independently appearing ornamentation

What

proliferates.

the

mental

applies to the rococo frame of the picture, applies to the frame of the whole of life. Something playful

so

and decorative, something frivolous and coquettish, something contrary to nature and theatrical is back in the mood of existence. Shepherd games and cave works are not the outward forms of today; but internally they are not absent. The wonders-

Petite

Men's velvet vests, women's cigarettes, the easy game of kissing the hand and the hustle and bustle of cabaret, frivolous

and amusing,

naissance, it

and

in

is

just

it

is

not the pure love of life of the

Rococo mood. The personality cult flourishes

the nerdism and title addiction to his area; the

Luxury celebrates its festivals and, in its wake, the dowry hunt. The arts and crafts are back to their rococo height with beautiful vessels and jewels and furniture; picturesque ways of life always bring new pleasures and surprises. History already brings us its memoirs and science its handbooks and collected works as it was then. That is not the mood of the individual, that is the mood of young Germany; and if the emperor is to truly realize the feeling of his people, then he must not want to imitate the simple simplicity of his grandfather, but must move to Kiel and Corfu and in lavish festivals and picturesque parades, in the unveiling of monuments and laying the foundation stones, in parade speeches and theatrical splendor Rococo mood of the whole people

end of expression.

The German Volksgeist

This festive mood of the nation that has become rich is not threatened, because time and again it turns out that the people are not willing to go through all their games with the tough, strict ones

is

To forget about work.

And like

the

Night to be turned into day, there is always the new sober effect Germany with the new morning

force.

and

in

is

science

in spite of

everything

and art

gorgeous at work, and business and law

and the

Empire.

I5

it strides briskly with it

the best.

Also

embodied in it, in un-

tiring work, the emperor the noblest instincts of the people

hour

mind;

around

hour

he sets

the iron strength,

to carry an enormous burden of his duties. But no less important for the nation

As

the

Festive mood

in

was

around

another.

the emperor's soul never

seriously drowned out, the easy game has never influenced moral conscience and moral rigor. Just in it

Rococo mood by far opposed to it; the game became enough

the humid folk spirit does not have

to

often

Just

more immoral

Carelessness

in

all

Layers of the people.

the imperial family remained a symbol of the pure, never touched again

of a hint of suspicion, and

We lived it as the Emperor and Crown Prince took care with purifying severity that there was no moral stain in the surroundings

Thrones defiled. In this moral rigor and purity, immeasurable happiness for the German people. It is precisely because of this that he becomes the custodian of the deepest German treasures, the bearer of the German Gedes Kaiser in the midst of an easy time

lies a

knowing

So we have the American complainers and serious opponents of the emperor quiet

and again and again we recognized

ins

eye

self

looked,

and the Missim Kaiser all those

the hastiness

In truth, they embody themselves and flushes that thank the sacred inheritance of feelings, but that alone is his real German nationality. Truly over the dispute that elevates him to duty, that alone parties. The genius of the German people is in their will

understand.

lively,

and who the German people

loves

he can

Not

hesitate to join in enthusiastically here in the heart of the proud republic: long live the German Kaiser!

II.

Exchange of professors. At

On board the "Kaiserin Auguste Viktoria" Atlantic Ocean, June 20, 1908.

Friend home with

and all

Colleague! serious

the

your

and

longer

out

letter

cheerful

the

Professorial

- * Dear exchange considerations

lies next to me and admonishes me to answer, while I rest comfortably in the armchair on the Kaiserdeck and look out over the blue tide that has reached your letter and that flickers in the sunshine. shortly before I and in the restlessness of Boston I left,

- the Harvard holidays begin - semester days I couldn't think of a reply.

last

June the wonderful

center

But now

leisure

After the ocean voyage, I am happy to return to your correspondence in order to add a few counter-considerations to your considerations. I am almost afraid that she is still

in

like to spin out longer than your epistle, because here in the middle of the ocean there is no time and no rush.

There is nothing more delicious than this happy detachment, this contemplative life between the laughing

Sea and the blue summer sky,

easily played around

And the conviviality of happy fellow travelers. more delicious than on the "Auguste Viktoria"



nowhere

the

of which is

it

Well traveled

May others who are in too much of a hurry to tell "Germany" or the "Kaiser" over the world

the most beautiful of all ships!

have on the

hunting the sea, I praise the "Kaiserin" and her proud sister ship the "Amerika": even in winter storms they carried me calmly through the peaks of waves. But now in June there is no wave to be seen. Like from the terrace of a beach castle

Sounds

ring from the palm garden of the gypsy chapel, in the distance gushing in

look

I

out;

quietly

17

Professors exchange.

a few whales up their stream of water, and only here and there the crease of a cordless warns that we are still in contact with the new world and soon again with the old world on our magnificent island of ships.

Thoughts like to move over and over again during the hour; the little discrepancies of yesterday In such

and the day before yesterday, tomorrow are there

Coincidence concerns

all

Interrelationships

the eye

And if

clearer.

then comes over

For

tomorrow and beyond

I will forget the broad lines of the between Europe and America

so on that

Whole

look,

but with grave satisfaction how different my old homeland and my new homeland understand each other today than when I first crossed the ocean in the days of the Chicago World's Fair. Yes it

if

If you, dear friend, find only loose ridicule in your soul for some of these communication paths and some of the newer means of exchange, I can confidently say that the good and the right and the sensible far outweighed the good and that great movements should not be judged on the basis of small mistakes. But if you finally kindly invite me to bear the bulk of the responsibility, I will ask first

not at all,

whether my sins of mediation

but I like to wear

would.

ready,

the

were really so bad, responsibility there too

where a scrutinizing judge And if you are now particularly over

discussed professors exchange, who said yes

I am relieving the far too much but only a thread in the

collect amusing colleague jokes, I like to laugh along with you and claim that you are wrong. But as I said, I do not have to apologize, and I also like to leave the criticism to the others, and only one thing interests me is the basic direction understandable,

tissue

is

the

all

:

and what can and must be done to come closer to us?

Aim closer

When I look back, I clearly see the beginning of these political-academic relationships. Chance wants

since

that the

this

in

avalanche

ins

Münsterberg, Aus

Days exactly a decade came. In June 1898 I wrote

roll

German America.

2

lo

Professorship exchange.

the German ambassador von Holleben, which quickly turns into a never-interrupted one

first

Letter,

Correspondence

The basic idea of ​​my suggestions was, however, and the German American government with the only policy contact and it was clearly ahead of American politics.

developed. this.

By then the German government had

watch that after

the

Spanish wars would establish a vast world of the United States with political development and the immense internal forces of the young nation

new goals

It was in Germany's turn to develop. such an interest in gaining closest contact with the American nation and the two aspiring in

Peoples for

all

Future cases

by external impossible

Not

Alliance contracts, but rather to bind to one another through internal volitional relationships. But that was clear to me, and I saw in it

the

decisive:

Nation can

the

deepest

and best forces

the

Democracy only

to the

the American

in

smallest parts through politics and the official government representatives. And that was true for them

"Pre-Roosevelt Period"

much livelier than today.

rika developed his best powers

the

only that

Not

rather

in

classes

much higher

The real am-

in the life of the universities,

and research

Dimensions

as

the

serve,

German high

schools are at the same time a social unification of the leading spirits of the country. I really wanted German politics too

the

To get in touch with the best and enduring America, a contact between the German government and the American universities was bound to take place.

With the finest

understanding

and the safest tact and

The German ambassador responded to this suggestion with tireless energy. The following winter he was the honored guest under the old elms of Harvard University for a week and now became the focus of festivities that marked a whole new relationship between the two

Countries

designed.

The leader of the American

Mental

Lebens, the President of Harvard University, Charles Eliot, willingly this

new appearance in the academic field

on.

took charge

Professors exchange.

IQ

the

The first venture in Cambridge-Boston was so successful, I went to Chicago to meet the President

from-

the

Chicago University to designate the unforgettable Harper to join the movement, since Chicago University is equally responsible for the leadership of the American West.

Also

claimed, like Harvard, those of the East.

think soon

scattered.

In the spring

There

was every

followed Herr von Holleben

the Chicagoer

Invitation; the university even created a German guest. The ambassador spoke to thousands of students in the auditorium, and in impressive speeches it was also a holiday for in the spiritual stronghold of the West

first time

solemnly

the

Germany proclaimed.

between

Friendship

The climax

America and

reached

this first

then later the German ambassador in grateful movement, recognition of these efforts to a certain extent the highest and rarest medal in the country, the honorary doctoral hat of als

Harvard University.

Outwardly, a small secondary movement was linked to this. Several Harvard professors who taught German language and literature there had long expressed the wish that Harvard, rich in collections and museums, should also include a collection of plaster casts of German works of art in the interests of Germanic teaching. I myself, who do not have to teach German but psychology at Harvard, stood quite far from this movement. My kind colleague Professor Francke was the intellectual originator. At first the movement was unsuccessful

;

But when the German ambassador visited us, he called the leading Germans from Boston together, and under

stayed.

lively participation of the ambassador

illuminated

and

discussed.

The

became the whole plan

ambassador

reported

to

Berlin, how much the implementation of this plan was conditioned by the assistance of the German government, and then

Harvard honored Germanness by awarding the ambassador an honorary doctorate, the generous decision matured in the Kaiser, also reinforced by Hermann Grimm, in return from Harvard University

a

as complete as possible

collection

the important

20

Exchange of professors

greatest

German art monuments in

To give a cast.

then Prince Heinrich the land of the stars and sought

around

Stripes

As a loading

to promote more and more favorable, creative two nations, then he became the

which move quickly

the

draws

Bringer of the proud imperial gift. In my study, in which the professors told the ambassador three years earlier

handed over

Wishes now

museum

stated,

Brother of the emperor with

more solemn

for a Germanic

the

Speech to the President of the University and the illustrations of the works of art,

the

The deed of gift should form the basis of the first Germanic museum abroad. Donations from other sources soon followed in abundance, and the result was a collection that, like few others, offers a vivid picture of German sculpture from earlier times in a foreign country. from now on

I look at those first years of the political-academic

back, they still appear to me today as years of work, compared to which the further development of the

Movement tedious last

Years only meant smooth and easy continuation.

Of the

Obstacles that faced at that time, yes from

the difficulties with which prejudices, misunderstandings and errors can be eliminated and emotional inhibitions

were squirming, making those in

this

circle

first

in

yourself

no

picture

more,

the

the happy era of professors

For five years it was only a matter of sowing; the exchange of professors already takes place at the beginning of the harvest. As a matter of fact, after the prince's visit turned out to be a brilliant success and the leading American universities had acquired their secure position in international relations, new and new forms of intercourse were bound to arise of their own accord; and that with the exchange

looked inside.

Harvest also some weeds that have grown up, there will be no damage. At first it resulted in constant wonder. Naturally,

that,

after this

the advantages

this academic-political

different interrelationships made sense, and more and more universities were ambitiously imitating the movement. Soon the vigorously advancing Columbia University closed in

new York

at,

21

Professorship exchange.

in another way the universities of Pennsylvania, Illinois, or Wisconsin, and always new plans outbid each other. The new messenger then led with great skill

or from

Freiherr Speck von Sternburg, the movement continued, and, as I had hoped and strived for from the beginning, gradually the German university

of the empire,

schafter

world

Structure a. The year after, I was already drafting the plans for the great inter-

in this world political

the prince visit national

St. Scholars' Congress for the world exhibition for the first time a whole host of the most outstanding

to the

Louis that

should lead European researchers across the ocean. Most of the German scholars, to whom I personally brought the invitation in the following summer, joined the pilgrimage to the city of St. Ludwig, and whoever wants to measure, much of the stimulation and the intellectual exchange and the national connection from this incomparable congress-

how

ride arose!

as

Back then,

on

the way back from the

teaching congress our guests, with men like Harnack, Ostwald, Lamprecht, etc. in their midst, who stayed at Harvard, were

probably also

the decisive ones

special shape

Conversations conducted

of the official

the to the

Professors' exchange leading

Contact with Althoff, the far-sighted master in the Ministry of Culture. And Columbia University soon followed on Harvard's trail. ten, in steady

Let me, dear colleague, dwell a little while on this exchange of professors, which is the main part of your letter.

carefree how

appears confused; see

he

from the parties hatred and favor

we too like him

the

yourself

performs,

who weighs things dispassionately. I do not deny that it was precisely for this form of relationship that I myself initially had certain reservations, the justification of which the future will prove.

But while over lets

everything

in

Form, in fact, basic ideas argue fruitfully and vc «-

the random

seems to me that

to a great extent

viable.

It

applies

the

two

healthiest and strongest and most promising nations in the world through their most valuable cultural institutions, the universities, in lively contact and thus in constant involvement

Exchange of professors

,

to keep. You see, of course, dear friend, that we both look at the whole question from very different points of view. For you it is exclusively a university

costume

For

sity question,

me

is

it

nearly

exclusively

a

political

troublesome

measure whether the German universities or the American universities derive more profit from it, whether on both sides of the academy

Question.

want

there definitely

Mixing lessons at all takes advantage of it, and frankly, all of this is completely indifferent. Academic

is

mix

comes

really

not as much

on

that now im

next winter the geographer of Berlin, Professor Penck, in America, and the geographer of Harvard, Professor Davis, in

The total yield of geographical knowledge in the entire student body here and there would probably be no less if both of them were to teach Germany.

But that’s what it’s about staying home. just in the last row. In the first place it is rather a matter of the fact that in our promisingly turbulent times the universities should not again stand apart from the great cultural tasks, but rather have to play their part in strengthening the awareness of national interrelationships. In my opinion, it is only in this sense that criticism can be exercised and modeled on the individual. peaceful

yourself

Would

To allow unimportant questions as to whether or not the other country wins more, I could not doubt, by the way, that the American university would make less profit

I basically

academic

the

a

the complaint on the German side is therefore certainly in place. The ratios in wider circles

than the German,

Not

at the

are of course unknown, are namely in such a way that the visiting American professor in Germany can easily find a large college

will bring about, the visiting German professor in America, on the other hand, even if he were the most brilliant, can only work on a small group of students; The fundamental difference is therefore only of little use to the American university as a teaching institution.

based on

the technical

Diversity

the

calculation

Professors exchange.

the

23

Germany

In

Years of study.

becomes

as is well known

each

Semester credited in which some colleges are taken; whether the student actually attends the college is a matter of concern

and

nobody,

the state exams

are

of

the visit

independently. In America, on the other hand, there is a different principle. Only those semesters will be considered by the student in which he has one

of the lectures in principle

come

For

of

certain number

that

he

by

Colleges

successful

visited

Has,

and

The only thing that can be said of course is that he passed an exam. Consequently

successfully determine

closes

each

American semesters with a written

Examination over the whole college. In the choice of colleges, however, the American student is also completely free.

Now, as soon as he has voted, he has to work hard. The number of colleges that he has to attend successfully in this sense in order to have the year counted towards the final degree are so large that he completely lacks the time and energy to attend other colleges as well, for which he is eligible

exam

unwilling to exist

is.

now the Harvard professor in Berlin, in accordance with the contract, in English and the German professor in Harvard in German. What's the effect? The English college on the well-known

speaks

Berlin University can easily be visited by anyone who has even the most superficial knowledge of English,

and the

only the third part of what some students hear becomes one

maybe

linguistically understands. Yes, it will be a very welcome opportunity

be

Ear on

exquisite

Get used to it and thus gain language skills, even if the course rushes past only half-understood. So it was natural that Harvard professors like English too

Peabody or Schofield, several hundred students gathered around them. On the American side, however, a completely different success must come about. Only the few students can attend the German-speaking college at Harvard who really have a command of the German language to such an extent that they are able to pass an examination on the content of the German college; the

can of course only a handful

be.

At the

cheapest

24

Professors exchange.

and so

Professor Kühnemann had the best visit with his class on classical German literature; and yet even that was only occupied by twenty students. The English-spoken Harvard colleges are generally not small as I read

are the conditions for German literature,

:

Winter before about four hundred men. This clearly foreseeable difficulty in finding American students for the German visitor was the real reason for my initial hesitation on the exchange question, and yet I believe that this outwardly limited benefit

Psychology last

not a decisive obstacle for the American university

First of all, it can be circumvented externally in some ways. For example, contrary to its usual practice, the Harvard Faculty has allowed the German guests to hold one-hour lectures in the halls of the university in front of an unlimited audience. There are of course only a few students, but hundreds, especially women, of all classes flocked to be Giemen about the new German art or Kühnemann for the inner fruitfulness of the exchange

about the German

and who that

got to.

drama

goal of

to hear the present speak; Movement not in the academic, but rather

Seeing far national, must take pleasure in it. Beyond the boundaries of the university, the German lecturer can also take part in German associations and German-speaking audiences

toria of other cities work.

Still

had no German

Out-

the

Feeling that he lacked the opportunity to serve the German cause. And even if only the academic comes into consideration, an exchange professor would have to be returned home

With

but not a real scholar who does not have the intense effect on a few real students of the superficial of the yes

Mass effect itself

prefers.

Another way of overcoming the difficulty seemed to be offered by asking the guest to give him

should a

speak the language of the hosts.

hit Columbia University.

Professor Leonhardt from Breslau

in

That is the way that last year spoke

English

Language about

German law and Professor Hadley in German about

Professors exchange.

25

american economy.

I think that's the less fortunate way out. For the vast majority, it must be said that they cannot possibly do their best in the first year of teaching a foreign language, and an academic teacher who does not give his best in every lesson is not doing his job. But it will

Selection on

limited to a few who teach a foreign language from the start, the choice becomes a random result. Above all, however, such instruction in the host's language loses too much of the national nuance. With

freedom

the

in

The stranger

then subordinates himself almost indiscriminately, if he really masters it, into the other faculty. It is no accident that the scholar, Columbia in the next language

in order to speak German there, with a political goal in mind, will prefer the foreign-language Harvard route. And yet the short period of experience has clearly shown that it is akadeWinter to Berlin

born in the Palatinate

and

is.

sends,

who

Ultimately, the particular form is not as important as the personality that realizes the idea of ​​exchange.

mix

politically

in the

the

petty

concerns

really should

remain silent

in

the indisputable fact that it has so far succeeded

Considering is

over

how to send out men over there who have earned respect and sympathy not only for themselves but for the entire foreign culture they represented among colleagues and students and far beyond. The friendly ones

Relations of the American guests to the Emperor's court and the hundredfold relationships of the German guests to the entire German-American community of the United States gave this game its characteristic extra-academic background. But, dear friend, let me emphasize again and again that it is not only wrong to view exchange professorships from the teaching point of view rather than from the national point of view, but

so that there is above all wrong exchange aids

eaten

you

more under no

as

one

many



is

in

this academic teacher-

Thread in the fabric, more

equals maybe know

or

as

a

to

see.

Ver

you

it so

little

Professors' exchange



like most other colleagues in Germany Harvard exchange with Germany, which then

that the

,

first

a

The Columbia Exchange followed a year later, which was nothing new to Harvard, just an extension of the already

previously introduced exchange with France. And it is precisely in this older Franco-American exchange that the difficulties of co-management have been overcome. The Harvardder in France the same conditions as in

mentioned professor,

Germany across,

finds

in fact

summer

in

He also goes to real semester there the winter in the Sorbonne and the

read

different

Provincial Universities.

The

fran-

French scholars, on the other hand, who, for the reasons described, could not expect a wide student audience at Harvard,

only comes the one he keeps in

and

for a series of about a dozen lectures, the auditorium of the university in front of a mixed audience, which are heavily attended by the professors themselves.

It did not seem inconceivable to me that Germany too would later adopt such a form, because the form must change

just

allowed

steadily

The experiences and the changing conditions. Any solidification of the form would the

to adjust.

Damage content,

and the essential

remains

but only

the

sym-

pathic touch of cultures.

In addition to the academic exchange, the efforts of the various Germanic societies in America, the German poets, stand with no less right

and

Writer,

lichen

Life

to

Men of science and lecture tours

to

America

to

public

pull.

Ludwig Fulda’s speech was a real success, and next winter we’ll welcome Carl Hauptmann. And I wonder which German guest has achieved the greatest triumphs and sympathy for in the last ten years

Germanness did the richest service, I have no doubt that it was Karl Muck, the conductor of the Royal Opera in Berlin, who, on leave for two winters, did that

Conducted the Boston Symphony Orchestra and visited the leading cities with this first band in the country. Never before have a German visitor received such an ovation.

27

Professors exchange.

brought. And next to the best of Germanness with

and

Alles'

this successful endeavor that

the

best American in touch

bring cultures of national peculiarities equal to one another to teach one another to understand, it now proliferates from immature attempts at dilettante who are without understanding for the

to

the

two

Peculiarities of the peoples. And all too often they only poorly conceal the vanity of incompetent nerds, or the jealousy of marginalized groups, or the naked lust for profit,

because even

the German-American friendship

is

For

some

It has long since become a lucrative item. hardly that not actually a week, in any far away

prospective plan for mutual relations to me Soon there will be new clubs, soon new magazines, approaching. now commissions to be sent out, now festivals, must become, now social, now political actions.

who celebrated

I

assure

touched,

if

Friend, that I am often scolded here and there because I even

rather

new plans for the friendship of peoples set into the world. Believe me, three-quarters of my work in this field consists merely of thwarting plans that were deliberately crafted, suppressing suggestions that might have sprung from the best will but ultimately caused harm, and discouraging undertakings that should

much

without knowledge of the circumstances

frivolously

were suggested.

The efforts that will now lead to a major German art exhibition in New York and later in Boston and Chicago next winter stand out brilliantly. The preponderance of French art influence on art-loving young America is a cultural injustice to the German nation.

of works of art from France

Even today, imports are more than ten times as much

There are often great opportunities. Finally, that too will now be made good. missed and the German people should look with full confidence on the New York art patron Reisinger, the German one from Germany.

Government, with the finest understanding of the state of affairs, granted complete freedom for the great exhibition

2o

Exchange of professors.

Has.

From Bode and Kampf

in Berlin

supports Reisinger in

and from Marr

in

Munich

the

magnificent, newly built grand piano in New York create an exhibition,

of the Metropolitan Museum which long lost territory for the

upper

should.

And there too

becomes

German

hopefully

the

Thing

he-

exchange

Gedanke will soon also be used, because from the very beginning Reisinger planned to follow the German exhibition in America with a worthy American painting exhibition in Germany. When I praised the new American art with warm joy four years ago in my work "The Americans", I only encountered skepticism at home. Art has become

hardly changed, but the German judgment definitely: international questions, dear friend, you just have to

since then in

Have patience.

Hopefully it will

Art movement then too

benefit the Germanic Museum in Cambridge, which started so proudly with the imperial gift and yet cannot really make progress because the small, poor hall is crammed full and there is a lack of funds for the necessary new museum building. Professor Francke's tireless appeals have not met with any response. A million marks would be indispensable, but while this sum is otherwise easily obtained for the Harvard building, American generosity fails here. The Anglo-Americans think that this is a matter for the Germans, the German-Americans have no real confidence in the stocky English Boston and would probably prefer to see such a museum at German-American headquarters, and some were even afraid that a large donation for Such a purely German work could raise doubts as to the authenticity of his Americanism; In short, it would be very much in place if a piece of exchange were to take place there too and helpful German thousand-mark bills were exchanged in dollars for the new museum building. Let me add that in the academic field, too, I do not believe that the exchange of teachers has to be the last word. Basically, I think student exchanges are more important. This is a big chapter, and I am delighted that the number of young Germans

Professors exchange.

which is too steady

coming to America's leading universities is increasing. There is also much more important

nakedness

as

29

Teaching questions.

Well be

you

reply,

that

It is precisely in this area that Germany has no particular interest in meeting new institutions and promoting new movements, because the influx of American students has been there for more than half a year. But it is precisely then that the surface can be very deceptive, and if Germany is not on guard is

German universities

hundred in progress

so

is

a

It

is

Yes

is.

serious national cultural damage cannot be avoided. Folly when this or that thinks that Germany

have no interest in foreigners joining his

High-

schools flock, yes that foreigners easily for natives

the good ones

Places

take away, or

the

much-