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Psychoanalysts. Biographical lexicon

Women Psychoanalysts in Great Britain

history

Enid Balint née Albu (1903-1994)

Enid Flora Albu, psychoanalyst and welfare worker, was born in London. She was educated at Cheltenham Ladies' College before she entered the London School of Economics in 1922, and graduated in 1925. In 1926 she married Robert N. Eichholtz, a professor of philology, and became the mother of two daughters.
During and after the Second World War Enid Albu-Eichholtz organized the Citizens' Advice Bureaux in London on behalf of the Family Welfare Association (later the Institute of Family Relations), helping families who lost their homes during the bombing. In 1948 she participated in founding the Family Discussion Bureau, the later Tavistock Institute of Marital Studies, in order to train social workers, who were needed for family counseling. The same year she started her psychoanalytic training with John Rickman at the Tavistock Clinic. After Rickman died in 1951, she continued training analysis with Donald W. Winnicott. In 1952 she was accepted as an associate member of the British Psychoanalytical Society (BPAS), and after her presentation of Three phases of a transference neurosis became a full member in 1954.
In connection with her work at the Tavistock Institute of Human Relations, Enid Albu-Eichholtz met Michael Balint (1896-1970), whom she married in 1953, after divorcing Eichholtz. She introduced Balint to the casework technique, which she used in training social workers and psychologists. Between 1949 and 1954 they developed the concept of the "Balint group", a training method for practitioners. In these groups, doctors discuss (under the direction of an analyst) case reports from their practice and work through the transference and counter-transference in the doctor-patient relationship. Even after their divorce Enid and Michael Balint worked closely together and developed the focal psychotherapy and the so-called flash technique for generalists.
In 1963 Enid Balint became a training analyst of the BPAS, where she belonged to the Middle Group of independents. Until 1965 she was in charge of the training and research course for general practitioners at the Tavistock Clinic, and from 1970 till 1974 she directed the London Institute of Psychoanalysis. A volume of her papers Before I was I was edited in 1993. Her work is especially related to that of Sándor Ferenczi, Michael Balint and Donald Winnicott. Above all she was interested in unconscious communication, the understanding of pre-verbal and bodily processes and the interface between the pre-verbal and verbal. She saw the aim of analysis as the development of "imaginative perception": the patient imagines his perceptions and by that he creates his own, partly imaginated, partly perceived world. Balint stated that the self and the world around us become real and alive only through the imagination.
After Michael Balint's death Enid Balint married (in 1976) Robert Humphrey Gordon (Robin) Edmonds (1920-2009), a retired diplomat and historian. (Top of the article)

  • SELECTED WORKS
  • Development of family discussion bureau work. Social Casework January 1951, 495-500
  • Three phases of a transference neurosis (1954). In Balint 1993 [Three phases of a transference neurosis. Psyche 11 (8), 1957, 526-542]

  • Training postgraduate students in social casework. Brit J Med Psychol 32, 1959, 193-199
  • On being empty of oneself. IJP 44, 1963, 470-480 [On inner emptiness. In Balint 1997, 58-83]
  • Marital conflicts and their treatment. Comprehensive Psychiatry 7, 1966, 403-407 [Marital conflicts and their treatment. In Balint 1997, 271-278]
  • Remarks on Freud's metaphors about the "mirror" and the "receiver". Comprehensive Psychiatry 9, 1968, 344-348
  • Unconscious communications between husband and wife. In W. G. Joffe (ed.): What is Psychoanalysis? London 1968 [Unconscious communication between spouses. In Balint 1997, 279-294]
  • The possibilities of patient-centered medicine. Journal of the Royal College of Generel Practioners 17, 1969, 269-276
  • Fair shares and mutual concern. IJP 53, 1972, 53-61 [Justice and mutual recognition as educational goals. Psyche 27, 1973, 118-128]
  • Technical problems found in the analysis of women by a woman analyst. A contribution to the question "What does a woman want?" IJP 54, 1973, 195-201 [An analyst's analysis of women. "What does the woman want?". In Balint 1997, 105-120]
  • The psychoanalyst and medicine. International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine 7, 1976/77, 35-46 [The Psychoanalyst and Medicine. In Balint 1997, 183-198]
  • Memory and consciousness. IJP 68, 1987, 475-483 [Memory and Consciousness. In Balint 1997, 121-139]
  • Before I was I. Psychoanalysis and the Imagination. Ed. by Juliet Michell and Michael Parsons. London, New York 1993 [Before I was. Imagination and Perception in Psychoanalysis. Stuttgart 1997]
  • (and Michael Balint) Psychotherapeutic Techniques in Medicine. London 1961 [Psychotherapeutic Techniques in Medicine. Stuttgart 1963]
  • (with Michael Balint, R. Gosling and P. Hildebrand) A Study of Doctors. Mutual Selection and the Evaluation of Results in a Training Program for Family Doctors. London 1966
  • (with Michael Balint and P. Ornstein) Focal Psychotherapy: An Example of Applied Psychoanalysis. London 1972 [focal therapy. An example of applied psychoanalysis. Frankfurt / M. 1973]
  • (and J. S. Norell) (eds) Six Minutes for the Patient. London 1973 [five minutes per patient. Frankfurt / M. 1975]

  • REFERENCES
  • Baruch, Hoffman Elaine, and Lucienne J. Serrano: Women Analyze Women, in France, England and the United States. New York, London 1988
  • Clulow, Christopher: Obituary Enid Balint Edmonds. Sexual and Marital Therapy 9 (3), 1994, 301
  • Hopkins, Philip: Balint, Michael Maurice (1896-1970). Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, vol. 3. Oxford, New York 2004, 550-553
  • Moreau-Ricaud, Michelle: Enid Balint-Edmonds (1904-1994). Le Coq-Héron No. 136, 1995, 77-80
  • Parsons, Michael: Introduction to Enid Balint: Before I was. Stuttgart 1997, 13-21
  • Pictures from the life of Michael Balint. Am J Psychoanal 62, 2002, 355-358 (11/11/2011)
  • Ruszczynski, S .: Enid Balint and the beginning of the psychoanalytical understanding and treatment of the marital relationship. Bulletin of the Society of Psychoanalytical Marital Psychotherapists 3, 1996, 4-7

  • PHOTO: Société Balint Belge


Dorothea Helen Ball (1916-2006)

Dorothea was born in in Lenzie, just outside Glasgow, the oldest of three children. Her father died soon after her birth, and her mother brought up Dorothea and her two brothers alone. She studied medicine at Glasgow University, qualifying just before the outbreak of the Second World War.
After the end of the war, she married Sidney Ball (1909-1991), a Canadian osteopath, with whom she had two children, Graham and Calie. She began studying at the London College of Osteopathic Medicine, but soon decided to train as a psychiatrist and psychoanalyst. She practiced privately in London and worked as a Clinical Assistant in the Department of Psychological Medicine, University College Hospital London (UCL). In 1958, along with Heinz Wolff and Roger Tredgold, she initiated the UCL Student Psychotherapy Scheme as a way to improve the doctor-patient relationship: It was a program that enabled medical students to treat a patient in supervised psychotherapy. In 1969 she was the co-author of a report on the training of UCL medical students in patient-centered medicine, under the direction of Michael Balint.
Following a stroke, Dorothea Ball retired in 1999.

  • SELECTED WORKS
  • (and Heinz H. Wolff) An experiment in the teaching of psychotherapy to medical students. Lancet 26 (1), 1963, 214-217
  • (with Michael Balint and Mary L. Hare) Training medical students in patient-centered medicine. Comprehensive Psychiatry 10 (4), 1969, 249-258 [teaching medical students in patient-centered medicine. Psyche 23, 1969, 532-546]

  • REFERENCES
  • Osteopathic Trusts Limited (2017-10-23)
  • Phillips, Gerald: Obituary Dorothea Helen Ball. BPAS, August 2006
  • Shoenberg, Peter, and Jessica Yakeley (eds): Learning about Emotions in Illness. Integrating Psychotherapeutic Teaching into Medical Education. London; New York 2014


Mary Barkas (1889-1959)

Mary Rushton Barkas was born in Christchurch, New Zealand. She was the sheltered only child of Frederick Barkas and Amy Porter, both from England (Fig.). Her father was a chemist and manager of the New Zealand Loan and Mercantile Agency Company, her mother worked as a governess and music teacher before her marriage.
After studying at the Victoria University College in Wellington, Mary Barkas went to London in 1913 to continue with domestic science at King's College. Shortly after the outbreak of the First World War, she decided to study medicine at St. Marys Hospital and the London School of Medicine for Women and gained her medical degree in 1918. In 1919 she became the first female house physician at Bethlem, London's famous psychiatric hospital. Her work at Bethlem stimulated her interest in psychiatry. She went on to study Psychological Medicine, took her Diploma in 1922 and proceeded to the MD in 1923. She then practiced from 1923 to 1927 at the Maudsley Psychiatric Hospital, where she specialized in psychotherapy and worked in the department for the treatment of children established by William Dawson.
In 1922 Mary Barkas went to Vienna where she began studying psychoanalysis under Otto Rank. That same year she became an associate member of the British Psychoanalytical Society (BPAS). She gave lectures about psychosis, such as, in 1925, about The treatment of psychotic patients in institutions in the light of psycho-analysis at the BPAS. In 1924 she attended the International Psychoanalytical Congress in Salzburg. She was less interested in psychoanalytic theory than in the application of psychoanalysis to the therapy of psychotic patients.
From 1928 to 1933 she was appointed Medical Superintendent of The Lawn Hospital in Lincoln, a small private asylum with chronic financial problems. After her father died in 1932, Mary Barkas returned to New Zealand. She retired to Tapu, north of Thames, gave up practicing medicine and devoted her life to breeding Schnauzers and studying Chinese philosophy. (Top of the article)

  • SELECTED WORKS
  • The treatment of psychotic patients in institutions in the light of psycho-analysis. J Neurol Psychopathol 5 (20), 1925, 333-340

  • A note on the significance of the vegetative nervous system in tabes dorsalis. J Neurol Psychopathol 6 (22), 1925, 126-128 (2016-03-11)
  • Tonic spasm of the eyes in conjugate deviation. The Lancet 2, 1926, 330
  • Psychosis associated with pressure from a disc of bone replaced after trephining. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine 20 (5), 1927, 630
  • Psychosis showing recovery after relief of intracranial pressure of doubtful origin. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine 20 (5), 1927, 631-632
  • Case for diagnosis between psychogenic depression and the post-encephalitic syndrome. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine 20 (5), 1927, 632
  • BMA: Annual meeting at Cardiff. Section of Mental Diseases and Neurology. The Lancet, 1928, 340-345

  • REFERENCES
  • Andrews, Jonathan, et al .: The History of Bethlem Hospital. London 1997
  • Barrowman, Rachel: Mason. The Life of R.A.K. Mason. Wellington, N.Z. 2003
  • Dawson, William S .: Obituary Mary R. Barkas. BMJ, June 20, 1959 (2019-07-10)
  • Evans, Bonnie, and Edgar Jones: Organ extracts and the development of Psychiatry: Hormonal treatments at the Maudsley Hospital 1923-1938. Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences 48 (3), 2012, 251-276
  • Kaplan, Robert M .: Mary Barkas. A New Zealand pioneer at the Maudsley. Irish Journal of Psychological Medicine, March 2016, 1-4 (2018-10-16)
  • Kaplan, Robert M .: Mary Barkas at the Maudsley 1923-1927. Journal of Medical Biography, October 2017, 1-8 (2018-10-16)
  • Lück, Helmut E., and Elke Mühlleitner (eds): Psychoanalysts in the caricature. Munich 1993
  • Meisel, Perry, and Walter Kendrick (eds): Bloomsbury / Freud. The Letters of James and Alix Strachey 1924-1925. New York 1985
  • Sanderson, Kay: Mary Barkas (1889-1961). In C. Macdonald et al. (eds): The Book of New Zealand Women. Ko Kui Ma Te Kaupapa. Wellington 1991, 45-47
  • The Barkas Collection (2016-04-12)
  • Wikipedia (2021-01-04)

  • FIG .: Robert Berény (1924); see a. Mary Barkas (Bethlem Royal Hospital): View details (2017-07-21)


Agnes Bene-Moses (?-1979)

Agnes "Agi" Judith Bene was born into a Jewish family in Hungary. She and her family survived the German occupation with the help of the Swedish embassy - except her father, who was executed shortly before the end of the war. After 1945, Agnes Bene studied psychology in Geneva with Jean Piaget. In 1950 she and her friend Anne-Marie Weil went to London for psychoanalytic training. She qualified first as a Child Psychotherapist with Anna Freud at Hampstead Child-Therapy Courses, going on to train with the British Psycho-Analytical Society (BPAS).
Agi Bene was a prominent member of the psychoanalytic community, and as a training analyst and supervisor very much in demand. She was a senior child psychoanalyst at the Hampstead Clinic, where she had played an active part in the training and research activities for many years. Her papers on self-pathology in children reflected her particular interest in borderline children and adults. In cases of children with deaf-mated parents, she assumed that lack of auditory contact and verbalization lead to cognitive and ego deficits (1977).
After marrying Rafael Moses (1924-2001), a German psychiatrist and psychoanalyst who had emigrated to Palestine in 1937, Agi Bene-Moses moved to Israel in 1977. She was a member of the Israel Psychoanalytic Society until her premature death.

  • SELECTED WORKS
  • Depressive phenomena in childhood. Their open and disguised manifestations in analytic treatment. In A. Freud et al .: Studies in Child Psychoanalysis: Pure and Applied. The Scientific Proceedings of the 20th Anniversary Celebrations of the Hampstead Child-Therapy Course and Clinic. New Haven; London 1975, 33-46
  • The influence of deaf and dumb parents on a child's development. Psa Study Child 32, 1977, 175-194
  • The question of narcissistic personality disorders. Self pathology in children. Bul Anna Freud Center 2, 1979, 209-218
  • Self pathology in children. In P. Beren (ed.): Narcissistic Disorders in Children and Adolescents. Diagnosis and Treatment. Northvale, N.J. 1998, 113-126
  • (and Rafael Moses) Perspectives of the Middle East peace process obstacles to peace, with special reference to narcissism. Samiksha 34 (4), 1980, 117-129

  • REFERENCES
  • Agi Bene-Moses. Bul Anna Freud Center 2, 1979, 163
  • Israel Psychoanalytic Society: Agi Bene-Moses + Rafael Moses (2018-10-16)
  • Sandler, Anne-Marie: Conflict and Reconciliation. In L. M. Hermanns (ed.): Psychoanalysis in Self-Representations, Vol. 10. Frankfurt / Main 2015, 221-287

  • Photo: Israel Psychoanalytic Society


Esther Bick née Wander (1902-1983)

The child analyst Esther Bick was born Esteza Lifsza Wander in Przemysl in Galicia (then part of the Austro-Hungarian empire). She was the eldest daughter of orthodox Jewish parents. At the age of seven years, she was sent to Prague, to assist her aunt in caring for a baby. She then worked as a nursery teacher, studied successfully for her baccalaureate and went to Vienna to study Psychology under Charlotte Bühler, who at that time was researching infant development. Despite her discomfort with Bühler's behavioral approach, she completed her PhD dissertation Group formation in the second year of life in 1935 in the context of this project.
After leaving university she married the medical student Philipp Bick (1904-?), With whom she fled (following Germany's annexation of Austria in 1938) to Switzerland. Not being granted a work permit, she emigrated - without her husband - to England, and lived initially in Manchester, where she began an analysis with Michael Balint in 1941. She worked in a day nursery in Salford, and between 1942 and 1945 in a child guidance clinic in Leeds.
After the end of the war she moved to London, starting her training at the Institute of Psychoanalysis in 1947. She continued her training analysis with Melanie Klein in 1950 and became a disciple of Klein. In 1948 she was accepted as an associate member, and in 1953, after the presentation of her paper Anxieties underlying phobia of sexual intercourse in a woman, as a full member of the BPAS. She specialized in child analysis and accepted in 1949 the invitation of John Bowlby, to work as a child psychotherapist at the Tavistock Clinic, where she organized her Infant Observation seminars and introduced this method into the core of the child psychotherapist's training.
Esther Bick exerted a profound influence on the development of child psychotherapy in England. Starting from Bühler's approach, she integrated the Infant Observation method into the psychoanalytic setting and conceived the technique of Therapeutic Infant Observation, which is connected with her name. Bick's method of observing the infant in its family environment, from birth to age two, was a conceptual innovation, for her focus lied on the emotions of the observer as a means for getting into connection with the child's unconscious.
Situated within the Kleinian theory, Bick's most important concepts include the term of the "mental skin", the primal skin function, and the defensive second skin phenomena. Esther Bick stated that the baby's own skin, felt both from within itself and through its boundary with its mother's skin (skin of self-and-mother), is experienced as being able to hold together its personality in an early state of development. If this primary skin containment fails, a second skin is built by muscular self-containment as defense against the catastrophic experience of a leak containment and the threatening life-spilling-out. This opened the way to Didier Anzieu's idea of ​​the skin ego. (Top of the article)

  • WORKS
  • [Wander, E.] Group formation in the second year of life. Phil. Diss. Vienna 1935
  • Anxieties underlaying phobia of sexual intercourse in an woman (1953). Brit J Psychother 18 (1), 2001
  • Child analysis today. IJP 43, 1962, 328ff; in Bick 2002, 27-36
  • Notes on infant observation in psycho-analytic training.IJP 45, 1964; in Bick 2002, 37-54 [remarks on infant observation in psychoanalytic training. Jb Psychoanal 53, 2006]
  • The experience of the skin in early object relation. IJP 49, 1968, 484-486; in Bick 2002, 55-59 [The skin experience in early object relationships. In E. Bott Spillius (ed.): Melanie Klein Heute, Vol. 1. Munich et al. 1990, 236-240]
  • Further considerations on the function of the skin in early object relations. Brit J Psychother 2 (4), 1986; in Bick 2002, 60-71
  • Collected Papers of Martha Harris and Esther Bick. Ed. by Meg Harris Williams. Perthshire, Scotland 1987
  • Surviving space. Papers on Infant Observation. Essays on the Centenary of Esther Bick. Ed. by A. Briggs. London, New York 2002

  • REFERENCES
  • Anzieu-Premmereur, Christine: Nourisson (observation thérapeutique du-). In Dictionnaire international de la psychanalyse (2002). Ed. by A. de Mijolla. Paris 2005, 1182-1184
  • Briggs, Andrew (ed.): The life and work of Esther Bick. In Bick 2002, xix-xxx
  • Memorial book for the victims of National Socialism at the University of Vienna (2018-10-04)
  • Golse, Bernard: Bick, Esther. In Dictionnaire international de la psychanalyse (2002). Ed. by A. de Mijolla. Paris 2005, 217f [International Dictionary of Psychoanalysis. Detroit et al. 2005, 177-178]
  • Harris, Martha: Esther Bick (1901-1983). J Child Psychother 9, 1983, 101f
  • Köhler-Weisker, Angela: Esther Bick: A pioneer of participating infant observation. Jb Psychoanal 53, 2006
  • Prat, Régine: Panorama de l'observation du bébé selon la méthode Esther Bick dans les pays francophones. Devenir 17 (1), 2005, 55-82 + Cairn.info (2015-04-08)
  • Rustin, Margaret: Esther Bick. Melanie Klein Trust 2013 (2019-07-22)
  • Willoughby, Roger: Between the basic fault and second skin. IJP 85, 2004, 179-195 (2009-08-21)

  • PHOTO in Bick 2002, xxvi


Augusta Bonnard (1903-1974)

Augusta (Guita) Josephine Bonnard was born in Russia. Her family emigrated to England after the abortive revolution in 1906. Augusta Bonnard studied medicine and qualified at the London University College Hospital (UCH) in 1927. She was for a time in general practice, after which she obtained a consultant's post at Paddington Green Children's Hospital. There she was influenced by Donald W. Winnicott, who stimulated her interest in child psychiatry and psychoanalysis.
Augusta Bonnard went to Vienna and briefly studied with Sigmund Freud. She underwent psychoanalytic training with Anna Freud and became a member of the British Psychoanalytical Society. After the foundation of the Hampstead Child Therapy Clinic and Course in London by Anna Freud in 1952, the clinic staff included Augusta Bonnard, who was one of the honorary consultants and taught in Anna Freud's training program.
After the end of the Second World War, Augusta Bonnard restarted and directed the East London Child Guidance Clinic at the London Jewish Hospital. She acted as a consultant psychiatrist to the clinic until her retirement in 1968. While working in private practice as a psychoanalyst in London, she also held posts at Great Ormond Street Hospital, the Tavistock Clinic, UCH and the Lasker Clinic in Jerusalem.
Since the late 1920s, Augusta Bonnard was married to Christopher Tatham Brunner (1902-1962), a director of Shell-Mex & BP Ltd.

  • SELECTED WORKS
  • "Black-out" and ventilation. BMJ, March 23, 1940, 506
  • The mother as therapist, in a case of obsessional neurosis. Psa Stud Child 5, 1950, 391-440
  • Was trauma in children, real or imaginary. Quarterly Journal of Child Behavior 3, 1951
  • Some discrepancies between perception and affect as illustrated by children in wartime. Psa Stud Child 9, 1954, 242-251

  • The metapsychology of the Russian trials confessions. An example of the defense mechanism of 'identification with the (idealized) aggressor'. IJP 35, 1954, 208-213 [The metapsychology of confessions in the Russian trials. An example of the defense mechanism of identification with the (idealized) attacker. Psyche 9 (3), 1955, 230-239]
  • Conscious and unconscious fidelity: From the East London Child Guidance Clinic. Psyche 9, 1956, 603-609
  • Pre-body-ego types of (pathological) mental functioning. JAPA 6, 1958, 581-611
  • The primal significance of the tongue (in normal and aberrant conditions). IJP 41, 1960, 301-307 [The primary role of the tongue in normal and abnormal conditions. Psyche 14, 1961, 690-700]
  • About pathological functions from the preliminary stage of the body-ego. Psyche 15, 1961/1962, 274-297
  • Impediments of speech: A special psychosomatic instance. IJP 44 (2), 1963, 151-162
  • Primary process phenomena in the case of a borderline psychotic child. IJP 48, 1967, 221-236
  • The parent's psychic reality as a part of the child's psychic reality. Ann Psychoanal 3, 1975, 123-144

  • REFERENCES
  • Obituary notices. BMJ, 23 November 1974, 475
  • Commercial Motor, March 30th, 1962 (2014-07-31)
  • Pretorius, Inge-Martine: From the Hampstead War Nurseries to the Anna Freud Center. In N. T. Malberg and J. Raphael-Leff (eds): The Anna Freud Tradition: Lines of Development - Evolution and Theory and Practice over the Decades. London 2012, 30-37
  • Rubinstein, William D., Michael Jolles and Hilary L. Rubinstein (eds): The Palgrave Dictionary of Anglo-Jewish History. Chippenham; Eastbourne 2011


Marjorie Brierley neé Ellis (1893-1984)

Marjorie Flowers Brierley was born in the London Borough of Lewisham, the only child of Thomas Ellis and Louisa Sarah neé Lanaway. Her mother presumably worked at the Medico-Psychological Clinic (later Brunswick Square Clinic), the first clinic in Britain to offer psychoanalytic training and therapy.
Marjorie Ellis studied psychology at the University College London from 1916 to 1921 and became medically qualified in 1928. In 1922 she married William B. Brierley (1889-1963), botany professor at Reading University and formerly the husband of her friend Susan Isaacs. She had personal analysis with John Carl Flügel and subsequently with Edward Glover. She qualified as an associate member of the British Psychoanalytical Society (BPAS) in 1927 and as a member in 1930.
Commencing in 1933, Marjorie Brierley was a training and control analyst of the BPAS and a lecturer at the Psychoanalytic Institute in London. During the controversies between Melanie Klein and Anna Freud she took an intermediate position and belonged later to the so-called Middle Group of the independents. As a member of committee with Edward Glover and James Strachey she organized the Controversal Discussions, which were held in 1943 and 1944 to attempt to evaluate the different theoretical positions of Kleinians and Anna Freudians.
Although Marjorie Brierley reproached Melanie Klein for her general lack of precise definition, especially of the term "internal object", on many issues she agreed with her and regarded the Kleinian concept of internalized object phantasies as compatible with Sigmund Freud's fundamental ideas. Brierley's book Trends in Psycho-Analysis (1951) contains all the articles, she wrote between 1934 and 1947 - with the exception of two papers on the subject of female development. The most notable is her essay Affects in theory and practice, which aimed to restore affects to their appropriate place in psychoanalytic theory, distinguishing them as essentially ego experiences from instinct.
Marjorie Brierley published between 1931 and 1967 numerous book reviews and abstracts in the International Journal of Psychoanalysis, for which she was assistant editor until 1978. After her training analyst Edward Glover left the BPAS in 1944, she reduced her activities concerning the psychoanalytic society. When her husband retired in 1954, she also withdrew from clinical practice. They moved to the Lake District, where Marjorie Brierley lived until she died. (Top of the article)

  • SELECTED WORKS
  • Some problems of integration in women. IJP 13, 1932, 433-448
  • Present tendencies in psycho-analysis. IJP 14, 1934, 211-229
  • Specific determinants in feminine component. IJP 17, 1936, 163-180
  • The affects in theory and practice. IZP 22, 1936, 439-452 [Affects in theory and practice. IJP 18, 1937, 256-268]
  • A prefatory note on internalized objects. IJP 20, 1939, 241-245
  • Internal objects and theory. IJP 23, 1942, 107-112
  • Theory, practice and public relations. IJP 24, 1943, 119-125
  • Notes on the metapsychology as process theory. IJP 25, 1944, 97-107
  • Further notes on the implication of psychanalysis. Methodology and personology. IJP 26, 1945, 89-113
  • Notes on psycho-analysis and integrative living. IJP 28, 1947, 57-105
  • Trends in Psycho-Analysis. London 1951
  • "Hardy perennials" and psycho-analysis. IJP 50, 1969, 447-452

  • REFERENCES
  • Abram, Jon: Marjorie Brierley. British Institute of Psychoanalysis 2015 (2017-07-21)
  • Grosskurth, Phyllis: Melanie Klein. New York 1986; Stuttgart 1993
  • Hayman, Anne: On Marjorie Brierley. Int Rev Psycho-Anal 13, 1986, 383-392
  • Hayman, Anne: Brierley, Marjorie Flowers. In Dictionnaire international de la psychanalyse (2002). Ed. by A. de Mijolla. Paris 2005, 247f [International Dictionary of Psychoanalysis. Detroit et al. 2005, 226-227]
  • Huppke, Andrea: Marjorie Brierley. A look back at the early days of the London Middle Group. Lucifer-Cupid 27 (53), 2014, 52-70
  • King, Pearl: Biographical notes. In P. King and R. Steiner (eds): The Freud-Klein Controversies 1941-45. London, New York 1991, ix-xxv

  • PHOTO: British Institute of Psychoanalysis


Marion Burgner née Chasik (1930-1996)

Marion Burgner's parents Mordechai and Sonia Chasik were Russian Jewish immigrants living in East London, where she spent her childhood. She studied part-time at Birkbeck College, University of London, and qualified in English literature and then psychology. In 1958 she married Thomas "Tom" Burgner (1932-2001), a Berlin-born public administrator and a cousin of Hilda Abraham, with whom she had two sons.
Marion Burgner trained as a child analyst at Anna Freud's Hampstead Child Therapy Clinic and Course, and qualified as an adult psychoanalyst at the London Institute of Psychoanalysis in 1976. In 1984 she became a training analyst of the British Psychoanalytical Society. She taught and undertook research in child development and was associated with the work of the Anna Freud Center for more than 25 years. Besides that she worked for various organizations including the Child Guidance Training Center and the Brent Consultation Center. She taught at the Department of Psychological Medicine at University College Hospital and was involved in different projects such as an early HIV / AIDS research group at the Tavistock Clinic and the Young Adult Research Program led by Anne-Marie Sandler at the Anna Freud Center. In addition she was one of the founder members of Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy.
The core theme of Marion Burgner's contribution was the integration of Anna Freud's developmental perspective with newer ideas and clinical experience. In the 1970s she published along with Rose Edgcumbe a number of prescient papers emphasizing the importance of early object relationships. In their most cited paper The phallic-narcissistic phase. A differentiation between preoedipal and oedipal aspects of phallic development, Edgcumbe and Burgner elaborated on Anna Freud's concept of the phallic-narcissistic phase, delineating early pre-Oedipal narcissistic construction of body self-representations from Oedipal acquisition of sexual identity in the context of triangular relationships. (Top of the article)

  • SELECTED WORKS
  • The diagnostic profile 1: A latency boy (John B.). Bull Hampstead Clin 1, 1978, 31-55

  • A failure to establish a treatment alliance with a latency girl. A developmental viewpoint. Bull Hampstead Clin 1, 1978, 181-192
  • Understanding children. A developmental viewpoint. J Child Psychother 8, 1982, 117-130
  • The Oedipal experience. Effects on development of an absent father. IJP 66, 1985, 311-320
  • Analytic work with adolescents: Terminable and interminable. IJP 69, 1988, 179-187
  • Working with the HIV patient. A psychoanalytic approach. Psychoanal Psychother 8, 1994, 201-213
  • Analytic treatment of an adolecent with bulimia nervosa. In J. Raphael-Leff and R. Jozef Perelberg (Eds): Female Experience. Three Generations of British Women Psychoanalysts on Work with Women. London; New York 1997, 93-103
  • (and Rose Edgcumbe) Some problems in the conceptualization of early object relationships. Part I: The concepts of need satisfaction and need-satisfying relationships. Psa Study Child 27, 1972, 283-314
  • (and Rose Edgcumbe) Some problems in the conceptualization of early object relationships. Part II: The concept of object constancy. Psa Study Child 27, 1972, 315-333
  • (and Rose Edgcumbe) The phallic-narcissistic phase. A differentiation between preoedipal and oedipal aspects of phallic development. Psa Study Child 30, 1975, 161-180
  • (and Hansi Kennedy) Different types of sadomasochistic behavior in children (1979). Psychoanalytic Dialogue 4, 1980, 49-58
  • (and Audrey Gavshon) The diagnostic profile: XI. interim profile on John B. Bull Hampstead Clin 5, 1982, 193-206

  • REFERENCES
  • Downey, Judy: Obituary Tom Burgner. The Independent, September 10, 2001 (2015-04-14)
  • Fonagy, Peter: Marion Burgner. Psychoanal Psychother 11 (2), 1997, 173-176 + pdf (2016-07-3)
  • Malberg, Norka T., and Joan Raphael-Leff (Eds): The Anna Freud Tradition: Lines of Development - Evolution and Theory and Practice over the Decades. London 2012
  • MyHeritage (2015-04-14)
  • Sandler, Anne-Marie: Obituary Marion Burgner. The Independent, October 23, 1996 (2015-10-12)


Mary Chadwick (?-1943)

Mary Chadwick was an early pioneer of child analysis in Great Britain. She qualified as a nurse and subsequently received her psychoanalytic training with Julia Turner at the Brunswick Square Clinic in London and with Hanns Sachs at the Psychoanalytic Institute in Berlin. Her name is mentioned on the same level as Ella Sharpe and Nina Searl, all of them pupils of Hanns Sachs who represented a similar psychoanalytic view. Mary Chadwick conducted her first child analysis in 1922, employing the principles of Sigmund Freud and Hermine Hug-Hellmuth.
Mary Chadwick became an associate member of the British Psychoanalytical Society (BPAS) in 1923. She belonged to the BPAS until the mid 1940s. Full membership was refused to her by the veto of a minority, although the majority in the BPAS including Ernest Jones supported her application. Her collegue Melitta Schmideberg claimed that Mary Chadwick had been, like Nina Searl, pushed out of the Society by the "Kleinian clique" - in the spite of Melanie Klein's approval of her book Women's Periodicity. Menstruation, a subject to which little attention had been paid in psychoanalytic theory before, was one of the main themes in the writings of Mary Chadwick.
Mary Chadwick was a lecturer at the British College of Nurses and published numerous works about the psychology of children and education. One of her analyzes was the American poet Hilda Doolittle, who underwent three months of analysis with her in 1931. (Top of the article)

  • SELECTED WORKS
  • Psychology for Nurses. Introductory Lectures for Nurses upon Psychology and Psycho-Analysis. Given at 6 Guilford Place, London, during 1924-25. London 1925
  • About the root of curiosity. IZP 11, 1925, 54-68
  • A case of kleptomania in a girl of ten years. IJP 6, 1925, 300-312

  • An experiment in a kindergarten. Z psa Päd 1, 1927, 350-357
  • The god imagination in children. Imago 13, 1927, 383-394
  • The whence and whither of day dreams. The New Era 8 (30), 1927, 58-61
  • The distinction between sound and language in early childhood. Z psa Päd 2, 1928, 369-383
  • Difficulties in Child Development. London 1928
  • Notes upon the fear of death. IJP 10, 1929, 321-334 [The fear of death. IZP 15, 1929, 271-284]
  • The education of educators. Z psa Päd 4, 1930, 356-370
  • Nursing Psychological Patients. London 1931
  • Menstrual anxiety. Z psa Päd 5, 1931, 184-189
  • The Psychological Effects of Menstruation. New York, Washington 1932
  • Adolescent Girlhood. New York 1932
  • Women's Periodicity. London 1933
  • Chapters about Childhood. The Psychology of Children from 5-10 Years. London 1939
  • The Toddler in the Home. London 1940

  • REFERENCES
  • Doolittle, Hilda: Homage to Freud. Frankfurt / M. 1975
  • King, Pearl, and Riccardo Steiner (eds): The Freud-Klein Controversies 1941-45. London; New York 1991 [The Freud / Klein Controversies 1941-1945. 2 vols. Stuttgart 2000]
  • Klein, Melanie: Review of "Woman's Periodicity" by Mary Chadwick (1933). The writings of Melanie Klein, vol. III: Envy and Gratitude and Other Works, 1946-1963. London 1975
  • Lück, Helmut E., and Elke Mühlleitner (eds): Psychoanalysts in the caricature. Munich 1993
  • Meisel, Perry, and Walter Kendrick (eds): Bloomsbury / Freud. The Letters of James and Alix Strachey 1924-1925. New York 1985
  • Wikipedia (2019-07-10)

  • FIG .: Olga Székely-Kovács (1924)


Estelle Maude Cole

Estelle Maude Cole, a physician born in Ireland, worked as a Medical Officer of the Psychological Clinic at Brunswick Square in London in the early 1920s. She was analyzed by Ernest Jones and became an associate member of the British Psycho-Analytical Society (BPAS) in 1919 and a full member in 1921. Until 1927 she belonged to the medical staff of the London Clinic of Psycho-Analysis, which was affiliated with the British Institute of Psychoanalysis. She attended the IPA Congress in The Hague in 1920.
After recovering from severe pneumonia, she went to Budapest in 1922 in order to learn "active technique" from Sándor Ferenczi. But instead of that she had a piece of personal analysis with him. She returned to Ferenczi for further analysis in 1925.
In her case studies presented at the BPAS, Estelle Cole discussed the association of flute playing with urethral erotism, a connection between circumcision and castration complex, and the interpretation of a woman patient's hæmorrhoids as the fulfillment of her wish for masculinity.
In 1927 Estelle Cole resigned from the BPAS and joined the Adler Society, which was founded that same year by Dimitrije Mitrinović in London. Her counseling books Three Minute Talks about Children and Education for Marriage were about problems of child education and sex education for unmarried women.

  • SELECTED WORKS
  • A new point in the symbolism of flute playing. IJP 2, 1921, 202-203
  • A few 'don'ts' for beginners in the technique of psycho-analysis. IJP 3, 1922, 43-44

  • The abreaction of fear in relation to circumcision. Paper read in the BPAS, December 21, 1921.Bull Int Psychoanal Assn 3, 1922, 120
  • Notes in connection with the significance of haemorrhoids. Paper read in the BPAS, June 2, 1926. Bull Int Psychoanal Assn 8, 1927, 115-116
  • Circumcision and the abreaction of fear. J Neurol Psychopathol 7 (27), 1927, 237-238
  • Instruction in psychiatry. The Lancet 212 (5476), 1928, 305-306
  • Three Minute Talks about Children. London 1928
  • Education for Marriage. London 1938

  • REFERENCES
  • Brennan, William B .: Ferenczi’s patients and their contribution to his legacy. In A. Dimitrijević et al. (eds): Ferenczi’s Influence on Contemporary Psychoanalytic Traditions. Lines of Development. Evolution of Theory and Practice over the Decades. New York 2018
  • Ferenczi, Sándor - Ernest Jones: Letters 1911-1933. London 2013; New York 2018
  • IZP 6, 1920, 187, 378; 7, 1921, 119; 14, 1928, 284
  • Kahr, Brett: D. W. Winnicott. A Biographical Portrait. London 1996
  • The New Atlantis Foundation Dimitrije Mitrinović Archive: Catalog. University of Bradford, November 2015 (2020-09-29)
  • Wittenberger, Gerhard, and Christfried Tögel (eds.): The circular letters of the "Secret Committee", Vol. 1: 1913-1920. Tübingen 1999


Nina Coltart (1927-1997)

Nina Elizabeth Cameron Coltart was born in Shortlands, Kent, the eldest of two daughters of a general practitioner. In 1940 her parents died in a train wreck. Nina Coltart read Modern Languages ​​at Somerville College in Oxford from 1947 to 1950, before she studied at the St. Bartholomew's Hospital's Medical College in London, qualifying in 1957. Subsequently she worked as a house physician and psychiatrist in the National Health Service until she set up a private psychotherapy practice in 1961.
From 1960 to 1966 she trained at the British Psychoanalytical Society (BPAS), her training analyst was Eva Rosenfeld, supervisors were Armstrong Harris, Masud Khan and Paula Heimann. In 1969, she became a full member, and in 1971 a training analyst of the BPAS, where she belonged to the Independent Group. She was involved with the academic and administrative activities of the BPAS of which she was a Vice-President from 1984 to 1987. From 1972 to 1982 she was Director of the London Clinic of Psychoanalysis. Besides teaching at the British Institute of Psychoanalysis, she lectured as a visiting analyst in the USA, Australia, New Zealand, Sweden and Israel.
In Nina Coltart's writings her patients came to life with novelistic vividness. One of the most distinctive features of her work is the integration of psychoanalysis and Buddhism. Wilfred Bion and his concept of the mystic exerted a deep influence on her thought.
In 1994 Nina Coltart resigned from the BPAS and retired to the rural seat of Leighton Buzzard. Suffering from severe osteoporosis, she committed suicide three years later.

  • SELECTED WORKS
  • The practice of psychoanalysis and Buddhism (1985). In N. Coltart: Slouching Towards Bethlehem. London 1992, 164-175

  • The treatment of a transvestite. Psychoanal Psychother 1 (1), 1985, 65-79
  • Slouching towards Bethlehem ... or thinking the unthinkable in psychoanalysis (1986). In N. Coltart: Slouching Towards Bethlehem. London 1992, 1-14
  • The silent patient. Psychoanal Dial 1 (4), 1991, 439-453
  • The analysis of an elderly patient. IJP 72, 1991, 209-219
  • The super-ego, anxiety and guilt. Free Associations 3 (2), 1992, 243-259
  • Slouching Towards Bethlehem ... And Further Psychoanalytic Explorations. London; New York 1992
  • How to Survive as a Psychotherapist. London 1993
  • Buddhism and psychoanalysis revistited. In N. Coltart: The Baby and the Bathwater. London 1996, 125-139
  • The Baby and the Bathwater. London 1996
  • On the tightrope. Essays and meditations on the practice of psychoanalysis. Giessen 2018

  • REFERENCES
  • Brafman, A. H .: Obituary: Nina Coltart. The Independent, August 17, 1997 (2017-10-26)
  • Budd, Susan: Nina Coltart. Institute of Psychoanalysis 2015 (2017-10-26)
  • Molino, Anthony (ed.): Freely Associated. Encounters in Psychoanalysis with Christopher Bollas, Joyce McDougall, Michael Eigen, Adam Phillips, Nina Coltart. London 1997
  • Rudnytsky, Peter L., and Gillian Preston (eds): Her Hour Come Round at Last. A Garland for Nina Coltart. London 2011
  • Rudnytzky, Peter L .: Interview (with Brett Kahr). Karnacology (2017-10-26)
  • Wikipedia (2017-10-26)

  • PHOTO: Courtesy of Gillian Preston


Rose Edgcumbe (1934-2001)

The child analyst Rose Marjorie Edgcumbe was born in London, where she studied psychology at the University College London. In the mid 1950s she went to the United States, where she continued studying psychology and worked as a clinical psychologist in a children's hospital. After two years she returned to England and was active at the Booth Hall Children's Hospital in Manchester. In 1959 she began her training as a child analyst with Anna Freud at the Hampstead Child Therapy Course and Clinic in London and she qualified in 1963.
Rose Edgcumbe became a member of the British Psychoanalytical Society and worked as a training and supervising analyst at the Hampstead Clinic (after 1984, The Anna Freud Center), where she served as a director in 1992/93. She published a succession of ground-breaking papers on the theory and practice of child analysis, e. g., on the young girl's sexual development, psychological aspects of the acquisition of language and on symbolization. She focused her interest on the description and explanation of the Anna Freudian approach, in this context she wrote her most notable book Anna Freud. A View of Development, Disturbance and Therapeutic Techniques.
In the 1970s she published along with Marion Burgner a number of prescient papers emphasizing the importance of early object relationships. In their most cited paper The phallic-narcissistic phase. A differentiation between preoedipal and oedipal aspects of phallic development, Edgcumbe and Burgner elaborated on Anna Freud's concept of the phallic-narcissistic phase, delineating early pre-Oedipal narcissistic construction of body self-representations from Oedipal acquisition of sexual identity in the context of triangular relationships.
In 1990 Rose Edgcumbe married Peter Theobald. She died of cancer at the age of 67.

  • SELECTED WORKS
  • Some comments on the concept of the negative edipal phase in girls. Psa Study Child 31, 1976, 35-61
  • Toward a developmental line for the acquisition of language. Psa Study Child 36, 1981, 71-103
  • Anna Freud. Child analyst. IJP 64, 1983, 427-433
  • The development of symbolization. Bull Anna Freud Center 7, 1984, 105-126
  • Modes of communication. The differentiation of somatic and verbal expression. Psa Study Child 39, 1984, 137-154
  • Five lectures on symbolization, thinking and affect. Bull Anna Freud Center 11, 1988, 15-52
  • Anna Freud. A View of Development, Disturbance and Therapeutic Techniques. London 2000
  • (and Marion Burgner) Some problems in the conceptualization of early object relationships, Part I: The concepts of need satisfaction and need-satisfying relationships. Psa Study Child 27, 1972, 283-314; Part II: The concept of object constancy. Psa Study Child 27, 1972, 315-333
  • (and Marion Burgner) The phallic-narcissistic phase. A differentiation between preoedipal and oedipal aspects of phallic development. Psa Study Child 30, 1975, 161-180
  • (with Peter Fonagy, George S. Moran, Hansi Kennedy and Mary Target) The roles of mental representations and mental processes in therapeutic action. Psa Study Child 48, 1993, 9-48

  • REFERENCES
  • Fonagy, Peter: Marion Burgner. Psychoanal Psychother 11 (2), 1997, 173-176
  • Malberg, Norka T., and Joan Raphael-Leff (eds): The Anna Freud Tradition: Lines of Development - Evolution and Theory and Practice over the Decades. London 2012
  • Wikipedia (2021-01-04)
  • Yorke, Clifford: Obituary Rose Edgcumbe. The Guardian, September 1, 2001 (2009-08-26)


Elizabeth Foulkes nee Marx (1918-2004)

Elisabeth Therese Fanny Marx was born in Karlsruhe, the elder of two daughters of the Jewish lawyer Jacob Marx and his wife Henriette née Fuchs (Fig.). In 1934 she left Germany to attend a boarding school near Merano and later a business school in Neuchâtel. In 1936 she came to London to learn the antiquarian book trade (apprenticeship from 1937 to 1941) and to train at Pitman's College as a secretary.
In 1938 her parents emigrated to France. Her father died that same year in Nice; her mother and her sister Gertrude were arrested in 1942 and deported to Auschwitz. Only Elisabeth Marx, who stayed in London, survived the Holocaust. From 1942 to 1947 she served in the Catering Corps of the British Army, later in the Educational Service and as an administrative secretary. From 1950 she worked as a secretary for her uncle Siegmund Heinrich Fuchs (1898-1976), known as SH Foulkes, a psychoanalyst and pioneer of group analysis, who also came from Karlsruhe and emigrated to England in 1933. In 1952 she was a co -founder of the Group Analytic Society (GAS), together with SH Foulkes, Norbert Elias and four others. Over time, she held various functions within the GAS, including Vice President. In 1960 she married S. H. Foulkes, for whom she served as an assistant until his death in 1976.
From 1976 to 1988 Elizabeth Foulkes became the editor of the journal Group Analysis International Panel and Correspondence, later Group analytic contexts. In addition, she acted as a group therapist in various institutions. In the last she trained group psychotherapists at Goldsmith's College in London. Elizabeth Foulkes was an adherent of S. H. Foulkes' approach, which was inspired by Gestalt psychology. Foulkes regarded groups as basic to human existence and stressed that mental disorders could only be understood and treated within the social context.

  • SELECTED WORKS
  • Notes in the early days of the Group-Analytic Society (London). Group Analysis 10 (2), 1977, 104-108 + Group Analysis 14 (1), 1981, 92-96
  • Meeting of Members of the Group Analytic Society (London) attending the International Congress of Group Psychotherapy at Copenhagen in August 1980. Group Analysis 13 (3), 1980, 217
  • Norbert Elias. Bulletin of the Group Analytic Society 33 (8), 1990
  • Letter memoir. In Selected Papers of S. H. Foulkes: Psychoanalysis and Group Analysis. Edited by Elizabeth Foulkes. London 1990
  • Group Analysis: A brief history of this journal, 1967-92. Group Analysis 25 (3), 1992, 269-276
  • Some personal recollections of Norbert Elias. Group Analysis 30 (4), 1997, 525-530

  • REFERENCES
  • Campos, Juan, and Hanne Campos: Milestones in the History of Group Analysis. The European Group Analytic Movement and the Question of Internationality of Group Analysis. Group Analysis 14 (1), 1981
  • Memorial book for the Karlsruhe Jews (2021-01-04)
  • Group Analytic Society (February 25, 2015)
  • International Working Group for Group Analysis (2012-01-02)
  • Jacob, Steffen: Life After. Life stories of two Jewish families from Germany. Berlin 2003
  • Pines, Malcolm: Obituary Elizabeth Foulkes. Group Analysis 37 (4), 2004, 560
  • Wellcome Library (2012-01-03)


Liselotte Frankl (1910-1988)

Liselotte (Lilly) Frankl was born in Vienna, the eldest daughter of the businessman Robert Frankl and his wife Julie Baum. After attending the reformed grammar school for girls, she began studying psychology in 1929 at the University of Vienna, where she became a research assistant to Charlotte Bühler. At the same time she attended the lectures of Anna Freud and had a personal analysis with Ernst Kris.
In 1935 she gained her PhD at the Vienna University and subsequently worked as an education advisor at the Wiener Jugendamt and Karolinen-Kinderspital. In 1938, the year of the "Anschluss", she emigrated from Austria to Scotland where she was appointed to the staff of the Crichton Royal Hospital in Dumfries. She undertook medical training at the London School of Medicine for Women and the University of Saint Andrews in Scotland. After obtaining an MB BS from the University of London in 1945, she worked as a psychiatrist at the East London Child Guidance Clinic.
Liselotte Frankl continued her psychoanalytic training in London and joined the British Psychoanalytical Society, where she became a training analyst and supervisor a few years later. She worked with Anna Freud and was appointed Medical Director of the Hampstead Child Therapy Clinic - a post in which she served for many years. At Hampstead (with Ilse Hellmann) she directed a research project on adolescence. Her psychoanalytic writings include works on the problems of adolescence, accident proneness, the development of Albanian infants and the Ego's participation in the therapeutic alliance.
In 1967 Liselotte Frankl went on leave because of a depressive period and underwent psychiatric treatment. After her recovery she did not return to her former position and died at the age of 78 in London.

  • WORKS
  • Wages and punishment. Their importance in family education. Jena 1935
  • Some observations on the development and disturbances of integration in childhood. Psa Study Child 16, 1961, 146-163
  • Self-preservation and accident proneness in children and adolescents. Psa Study Child 18, 1963, 464-483
  • A specific problem in adolescent boys. Difficulties in loosening the infantile tie to the mother. The Bulletin of The Philadelphia Association for Psychoanalysis 13 (3), 1963, 120-129
  • The Hampstead Child Therapy Clinic. In P. Federn and H. Meng (eds): Psychoanalysis and everyday life. Bern, Stuttgart 1964
  • Susceptibility to accidents. A developmental study. Brit J Med Psychol 38, 1965, 289-297
  • (and Lotte Danzinger) On the problem of functional maturation. First report on development tests on Albanian children. Journal for Child Research 43, 1934, 219-254
  • (and Ilse Hellman) The Ego's participation in the therapeutic alliance. IJP 43, 1962, 333ff [I participation in the therapeutic alliance. In G. Biermann (ed.): Handbuch der Kinderpsychotherapie. Frankfurt / M. 1988, 199-208]

  • REFERENCES
  • King, Pearl, and Riccardo Steiner (eds): The Freud-Klein Controversies 1941-45. London, New York 1991 [The Freud / Klein Controversies 1941-1945. 2 vols. Stuttgart 2000]
  • Weitzel, Ursula: Frankl, Liselotte. In Brigitta Keintzel and Ilse Korotin (eds): Scientists in and from Austria. Life - work - work. Vienna 2002, 184
  • Yorke, Clifford: Liselotte Frankl. To Obituary. Bull. Anna Freud Center 12, 1989, 85-86

  • PHOTO: Courtesy of Freud Museum London


Marjorie Franklin (1887-1975)

The English psychiatrist and psychoanalyst Marjorie Ellen Franklin was born into a well-to-do family prominent in banking and liberal Jewish circles. She had been intended for the educational profession and was sent to the House of Education in Ambleside to be trained by Charlotte Mason, but soon she decided to study medicine. After basic medical training, Marjorie Franklin went to New York, to specialize in psychiatry under Adolf Meyer, a co-founder of the New York Psychoanalytic Society and the American Psychoanalytic Association.
Marjorie Franklin underwent analysis with Sándor Ferenczi between 1924 and 1926. She became an associate member of the British Psycho-Analytical Society (BPAS) in 1927 and a full member in 1931. Her main interest was the application of psychoanalysis to the under-privileged which she undertook through honorary appointments at hospitals. She worked in London as a consultant psychiatrist at the British Hospital for Functional Nervous Disorders, the Howard League for Penal Reform, and the Institute for the Scientific Treatment of Delinquency (later the Portman Clinic), of which she was a co-founder together with Edward Glover, Grace Pailthorpe and Melitta Schmideberg.
While working as a junior medical officer at the Portsmouth Borough Mental Hospital in the early 1920s, Marjorie Franklin became interested in the relationship between mental illness and the patient's environment. She developed a therapeutic concept, which she called "Planned Environment Therapy" (PET), and tried it out at the so-called Q Camps. According to this milieu therapy, theoretically inspired by positions of Donald W. Winnicott, Anna Freud, Otto Shaw and I. D. Suttie, patients live in a therapeutic community and are treated by a psychoanalytically supervised staff team. The therapy is based on establishing non-authoritarian, loving and accepting relationships.
The first practical project of the Planned Environmental Therapy, the Hawkspur camp for maladjusted men, was set up in 1936 by Marjorie Franklin and her colleague David Wills, it was followed by a camp for maladjusted boys in the 1940s. Another project was the Children's Social Adjustment (CSA), which also followed the PET principles. In 1966 Franklin founded the Planned Environmental Therapy Trust (PETT) to promote research, discussion and training regarding the PET approach. (Top of the article)

  • WORKS
  • The conditioned reflexes in epilepsy and the repetition compulsion. Imago 14 (2/3), 1928, 364-376
  • Family reactions during the analysis of a case of obsessional neurosis. IJP 14, 1933, 87-107
  • Obituary Barbara Low. IJP 37, 1956, 31
  • (ed.) Q Camp. An Experiment in Group Living with the Maladjusted and Anti-Social Young Men. Planned Environment Therapy Trust 1966
  • Discussion groups. The AWMC Newsletter, March 1968, 7

  • REFERENCES
  • Brennan, William B .: Ferenczi’s patients and their contribution to his legacy. In A. Dimitrijević et al. (eds): Ferenczi’s Influence on Contemporary Psychoanalytic Traditions. Lines of Development. Evolution of Theory and Practice over the Decades. New York 2018
  • Bridgeland, Maurice: Pioneer Work with Maladjusted Children. A Study of the Development of Therapeutic Education. London 1971
  • Bull Int Psychoanal Assn 8, 1927, 559 + 12, 1931, 514
  • Ferenczi, Sándor - Ernest Jones: Letters 1911-1933. London 2013; New York 2018
  • Marjorie Franklin collection. Archives of the British Psychoanalytical Society (2020-09-30)
  • Pines, Malcolm: Forgotten pioneers. The unwritten history of the therapeutic community movement (1998). The International Journal for Therapeutic and Supportive Organizations 20 (1), 1999
  • Planned Environment Therapy Trust (2014-06-18 - no more existing)
  • Wills, David: Marjorie Franklin. 1877-1975. British Journal of Criminology 15 (2), 1975, 109-110

  • PHOTO: Film still from Sándor Lorand: The Eleventh Congress of the International Psycho-Analytical Association, Oxford, England, July, 1929 (film). Library of Congress (2020-10-01)


Kate Friedländer née Frankl (1902-1949)

Kate Friedländer, psychoanalyst and physician, was born in Innsbruck, she was the daughter of middle-class Hungarian Jewish parents.The families of her father, the businessman Karl Frankl, and her mother Adele Frankl came both from Preßburg. Käte Frankl was educated by the Ursuline catholic nuns and was a member of a Zionist youth group (as were also her two brothers and her sister). In 1921 she commenced her medical education in Innsbruck and Berlin and obtained her degree in 1926. Subsequently she became an assistant to Karl Bonhoeffer at the Charité psychiatric university clinic in Berlin. Simultaneously she began her psychoanalytic training at the Berlin Psychoanalytic Institute. From 1928 to 1930 she underwent analysis with Josine Müller-Ebsen, which was converted into a training analysis in 1929 and continued with Wilhelm Reich in 1931.
In 1929 she married Walter Misch (1889-1943), then a senior physician at the Charité and, like her, of Jewish origin. Their daughter Sybille was born two years later. In 1932 together they wrote an essay on The vegetative genesis of neurotic anxiety and its drug elimination, which was highly regarded by Wilhelm Reich. Käte Misch-Frankl became an associate member of the Deutsche Psychoanalytische Gesellschaft in 1933, where she belonged to a group of left oriented analysts around Otto Fenichel.
Käte and Walter Misch emigrated to London after the Reichstag fire in 1933. Käte Misch took her third medical degree in Edinburgh and obtained a Diploma in Psychological Medicine in London. She became an associate member of the British Psychoanalytical Society (BPAS) in 1933 and a full member in 1938. In 1934 she separated from her first husband and three years later married Georg Friedländer, a Jewish radiologist from Wroclaw.
Kate Friedländer was no supporter of Melanie Klein's thinking, which predominated in the BPAS at that time. She shared the views of Anna Freud, with whom she worked together during the following years. After the war it was Kate Friedländer who persuaded Anna Freud to establish the Hampstead Child Therapy Course, where she was active as a teacher and training analyst.
Focussing her main interest on the problem of juvenile delinquency, Kate Friedländer was the first to develop a systematic psychoanalytic theory of the causes of delinquency. Working at the Institute for the Study and Treatment of Delinquency under the leadership of Edward Glover, she referred to August Aichhorn's Viennese work with problem adolescents and counseled maladjusted children and delinquent juveniles.
She set up Britain's first Child Guidance Clinic focusing on psychoanalysis as research method in West Sussex. However, she did not find it useful to conduct personal analysis with juvenile delinquents, but combined psycho- and socio-therapeutic measures. She preferred prevention, rather than cure, by educating parents, teachers and social workers.
In her main work The Psychoanalytic Approach to Juvenile Delinquency she described the origins of the delinquent behavior as follows: A latent neglect structure - strong unmodified drives, a weak ego, which is dominated by pleasure principle, and an non-independent super-ego - becomes manifest under the influence of negative environmental conditions. Unlike the neurotic, who gets substitutive satisfaction by the use of the imagination, the drive impulse of the antisocial character leads to a criminal act.
When Edward Glover, whom she strongly supported, resigned from the BPAS in 1944, Kate Friedländer withdrew as well. She died at the early age of 46 of lung cancer. (Top of the article)

  • SELECTED WORKS
  • (Misch-Frankl, Käthe) The biological foundations of Freud's fear theory. IZP 21, 1935, 62-67
  • On the "longing to die". IJP 21, 1940, 416-426
  • Charlotte Brontë. On the question of the masochistic character. IZP 26, 1941, 32-49
  • About children's books and their role in latency and prepuberty. IZP 26, 1941, 232-252
  • Social factors and mental health. Health Education Journal 2, 1942
  • Delinquency research. New Era in Home and School 24, 1943, 105-108
  • Delinquency and Mental Health. Health Education Journal 3, 1943
  • Formation of the antisocial character. Psa Study Child 1, 1945, 189-204
  • Psychoanalytic orientation in child guidance work in Great Britain. Psa Study Child 2, 1947, 343-357
  • The Psychoanalytic Approach to Juvenile Delinquency. London 1947
  • Neurosis and home background. A preliminary report. Psa Study Child 4, 1949, 423-438
  • Latent delinquency and ego development. In K. R. Eissler et al .: Searchlights on Delinquency. New York 1949, 205-215
  • Neurosis and home background. Psa Study Child 3-4, 1949, 432-438
  • Psychoanalytic orientation (1947). In Frank Alexander et al. (eds): Psychoanalytic Pioneers. New York 1966
  • (Misch-Frankl, Käthe, and Walter Misch) The vegetative genesis of fear and its drug elimination. Neurologist 5, 1932, 415-418

  • REFERENCES
  • Haager, Jutta: Kate Friedländer (1902-1949). Life and work. Med. Diss. Cologne 1986
  • Hoffer, Willi: Kate Friedländer. IJP 30, 1949, 59f
  • Jacobs, Lydia: Dr. Kate Friedländer. The New Era in Home and School 30, 1949, 101-103
  • Lantos, Barbara: Kate Friedländer. Prevention of juvenile delinquency. In Frank Alexander et al. (eds): Psychoanalytic Pioneers. New York 1966, 508-518
  • Mühlleitner, Elke: Friedländer, Kate, née Frankl. In Brigitta Keintzel and Ilse Korotin (eds): Scientists in and from Austria. Life - work - work. Vienna 2002, 203-205
  • Roudinesco, Elisabeth, and Michel Plon: Dictionary of Psychoanalysis (1997). Vienna, New York 2004
  • Schröter, Michael: 129 documented training candidates at the Berlin Psychoanalytical Institute 1924-1932: table. Lucifer-Cupid 33 (66), 2020 (2020-12-10)
  • Yorke, Clifford: Friedländer-Fränkl, Kate. In Dictionnaire international de la psychanalyse (2002). Ed. by A. de Mijolla. Paris 2005, 700f [International Dictionary of Psychoanalysis. Detroit et al. 2005, 645-646]

  • PHOTO in Hague 1986


Alice Goldberger (1897-1986)

Alice Goldberger was born into a Jewish family in Berlin. She trained as a social worker and educator and worked in various institutions in Berlin, inter alia as the head of "Obdach", a state run facility for disadvantaged children and their families. Since 1934 she led the kindergarten of the Jewish Community in Berlin, before she emigrated to England in 1939. Her family perished in concentration camps.
When interned on the Isle of Man as an "enemy alien", Alice Goldberger organized a nursery school for the children of the internees. The success of this venture was reported in the daily newspaper, and when Anna Freud read the account she invited Goldberger to join her team in 1942. She first became superintendent of the country-house War Nursery "New Barn" in Essex, and from 1945 to 1957 she was director of Weir Courtney, a stately home for orphaned children who had survived the concentration camp and came to England after the liberation in 1945, among them Sophie and Gertrud Dann's "Bulldogs Bank children" from Theresienstadt. Until 1948 the home was located in Lingfield House in Surrey, before moving to Isleworth in London.
In 1947, Alice Goldberger began training as a child analyst. She was among the first group of candidates who received psychoanalytic training at the Hampstead Child Therapy Courses, founded by Anna Freud. Her training analyst was Liselotte Frankl. She was a co-worker of Dorothy Burlingham in the Hampstead Child Therapy Clinic, where she participated in the project of simultaneous analysis of mother and child and in Burlingham's research projects with blind children.

  • SELECTED WORKS
  • (with Dorothy Burlingham and Andrée Lussier) Simultaneous analysis of mother and child. Psa Study Cild 10, 1955, 165-186 [Simultaneous analysis of mother and child. In D. Burlington: Maze Childhood. Contributions to the psychoanalysis of the child. Munich 1980, 229-255]
  • (and Dorothy Burlingham) The re-education of a retarded blind child. Psa Study Child 23, 1968, 369-385

  • REFERENCES
  • Freud, Anna, and Sophie Dann: Upbringing an experiment in group. Psa Study Child 6, 1951, 127-168
  • Friedmann, Manna: Alice Goldberger. Bul Anna Freud Center 9 (4), 1986, 313-314
  • Ludwig-Körner, Christiane: pioneer of child analysis. The work in the "Jackson Crèche" and the war children's homes. Lucifer-Amor 13 (25), 2000, 78-104 [Anna Freud and her collaborators in the early post-war period. In N. T. Malberg and J. Raphael-Leff (eds): The Anna Freud Tradition: Lines of Development. London 2012, 17-29]
  • Malberg, Norka T., and Joan Raphael-Leff (eds): The Anna Freud Tradition: Lines of Development. Evolution and Theory and Practice over the Decades. London 2012
  • National Holocaust Center and Museum, Laxton (Nottinghamshire): Lingfield House (2019-07-10)
  • US Holocaust Memorial Museum. Washington, D.C .: Alice Goldberger and the Children of Weir Courtney. Curators Corner # 5 (2017-11-02)

  • PHOTO: Zdenica Husserl, Joanna Millan and Rachel Oppenheimer: Lingfielders' reunion, 2009. AJR Journal 9 (9), 2009, 5 (2018-05-23); see a. US Holocaust Memorial Museum


Iseult Grant Duff (1882-1957)

Iseult Frederica Grant Duff was a member of a well-known British family. Her father, Sir Mountstuart Elphinstone Grant Duff was the British Governor of Madras from 1881 to 1886, where Iseult, the youngest of eight children, was born. Her mother Lady Grant Duff (née Webster) was a famed beauty, a painter and poetess. After the return of her family from South India to England Iseult Grant Duff grew up under the care of a German governess in the York House mansion at Twickenham.
As a young woman Iseult Grant Duff went to India as a missionary for several years. Having lost her religious faith, she came back to England after the First World War. While studying at the Brunswick Square Clinic in London, she met the analysts James Glover and Ella Sharpe. She had her training analysis first with Edward Glover, and later with Hanns Sachs in Berlin. In 1925 she became an associate member and in 1933 a full member of the British Psychoanalytical Society, where she was amongst the followers of Anna Freud.
Iseult Grant Duff was particularly interested in the application of psychoanalysis to literature and poetry. She translated Sigmund Freud's essay The poet and fantasizing into English and wrote articles about themes like the pregenital fixations of Jonathan Swift and the bisexuality of St. Thérèse of Lisieux.
Iseult Grant Duff retired from active psychoanalytical practice at the end of the Second World War. At the age of seventy-five, she and her female companion, who was bedridden with arthritis, committed suicide.

  • The story of a saint's imagination. Imago 16, 1930, 486-501 [L'histoire du fantasme d'une sainte. Archives des Sciences Sociales des Religions 41, 1976, 114-125]
  • The Elizabeth - Essex relationship. A psychoanalytic consideration. Psychoanalytic Movement 3, 1931
  • Snow white. Attempt at a psychoanalytic interpretation. Imago 20, 1934, 95-103 + in W. Laiblin (ed.): Fairy tale research and depth psychology. Darmstadt 1969, 88-99
  • A one-sided sketch by Jonathan Swift. Psa Quart 6, 1937, 238-259
  • (and Jacques Maître) Recherches psychanalytiques sur un cas de sainteté canonisée. Thérèse Martin (1873-1897). Archives des Sciences Sociales des Religions 41, 1976, 109-136 (2020-12-10)

  • REFERENCES
  • Bull Int Psychoanal Assn 7, 1926, 289
  • Fremantle, Anne: Three-Cornered Heart. London 1971
  • Grant Duff, Mountstuart E .: Notes from a Diary, Kept Chiefly in Southern India, 1881-1886. Vol. 1. London 1899 + archive.org (2018-05-23)
  • Payne, Sylvia M .: Obituary Iseult Grant Duff. IJP 39, 1958, 619
  • Raitt, Suzanne: Early British Psychoanalysis and the Medico-Psychological Clinic. History Workshop Journal 58 (1), 2004, 63-85
  • The Peerage (2017-07-21)
  • Wikipedia: Iseult Duff (2009-03-09)
  • Wikipedia: M. E. Grant Duff (2018-05-23)


Meena Battiscombe Gunn née Meacham (1886-1973)

Meena Battiscombe Gunn was born Lillian Florence ("Meena") Meacham on September 12th, 1886 in Maidstone, Kent. She grew up in a protestant family, the oldest of four children. Her youngest sister Gwendoline Emily Meacham, better known as Wendy Wood, was a famous campaigner for Scottish independence. Her father Charles Stephen Meacham was a chemist, her mother Florence Peploe Wood came from an old Scottish family. In 1894 the family moved to South Africa, where Charles Meacham took up a leading position in a brewery.
In her late teens, Meena Meacham returned to London to study piano at the Royal Academy of Music. She became part of the circle around George Bernard Shaw and H. G. Wells and was a member of the Fabian Society. In 1907 she married the Irish musician Herbert Hughes (1882-1937), their son Patrick - later known as Spike Hughes - was born in 1908. After her divorce from Hughes in 1922, she married the Egyptologist Battiscombe George ("Jack") Gunn (1883-1950), who was a Curator and Professor in Cairo, Philadelphia and Oxford. (Fig.) In 1928 their son John Battiscombe Gunn was born. They divorced in 1940, and Meena Gunn married the neurologist and psychiatrist Alexander Gray Clarke (1911-1944).
In 1924 she began her psychoanalytic training in Vienna as a staff member of the Vienna Psychoanalytic Polyclinic. That same year she went to Budapest, presumably to continue her psychoanalytic training with Sándor Ferenczi. She attended the International Psychoanalytical Congress in Salzburg (1924) and in Bad Homburg (1925). Meena Battiscombe-Gunn maintained a psychoanalytical practice on Harley Street in London, but did not join the British Psychoanalytical Society.
After World War II she worked with Anna Freud, before she left England in 1960 and stayed for a while in Canada. In 1965 she moved to the United States, settling in Lake Peekskill, where she treated schizophrenic patients. She spent her final years in Canada and died there from a stroke. (Top of the article)

  • REFERENCES
  • Addison, Rosemary: Designing Woman. textualities 2005 (2008-04-07)
  • Hughes, Patrick C .: Opening Bars. Beginning at Autobiography. London 1946
  • Hughes, Patrick C .: Second Movement. Continuing the Autobiography. London 1951
  • Lück, Helmut E., and Elke Mühlleitner (eds.): Psychoanalysts in the caricature. Munich 1993
  • Molnar, Michael (ed.): The Diary of Sigmund Freud 1929-1939. A Record of the Final Decade. New York; London 1992 [Sigmund Freud. Diary 1929-1939. Shortest chronicle. Basel; Frankfurt / M. 1996]
  • Obituary Alexander Annand Gray Clarke. BMJ, April 15, 1944, 541 (2014-11-06)
  • Simpson, R. S .: Gunn, Battiscombe George (1883-1950). Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Vol. 24. Oxford, New York 2004, 237f
  • Simpson, R. S .: Gunn, Battiscombe George (1883-1950). Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Vol. 24. Oxford, New York 2004, 237f
  • Wikipedia: Lillian Florence Meacham; Wendy Wood; Battiscombe Gunn; Spike Hughes; J. B. Gunn (2017-07-21)

  • FIG .: Olga Székely-Kovács (1924)


Victoria Hamilton (*1941)

Victoria Edith Hamilton, born in Aberdeenshire, Scotland, was the youngest daughter of Robert Edward Archibald Udney-Hamilton, 11th Lord Belhaven and Stenton, and his wife Sheila de Hauteville Pearson. She studied painting and design at Glasgow School of Art, and piano and organ at the Royal Scottish Academy of Music, before graduating in philosophy from the University of London in 1967. In 1966 she met the anti-psychiatrist Ronald D. Laing and underwent analysis with him. In the beginning of the 1970s, she received her training in child and adolescent psychotherapy with John Bowlby at the Tavistock Clinic. Victoria Hamilton worked in London as an art therapist in a psychiatric day hospital, liberal arts lecturer at Hornsey College of Art, as a special needs teacher for schools in the Inner London Education Authority and in child guidance clinics for the National Health Service.